Book Section records
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A Caltech Library Repository Feedhttp://www.rssboard.org/rss-specificationpython-feedgenenTue, 16 Apr 2024 14:35:45 +0000Frequency-Based Load Control in Power Systems
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20121003-154738717
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Topcu-U', 'name': {'family': 'Topcu', 'given': 'Ufuk'}}, {'id': 'Low-S-H', 'name': {'family': 'Low', 'given': 'Steven H.'}, 'orcid': '0000-0001-6476-3048'}]}
Year: 2012
DOI: 10.1109/ACC.2012.6315283
Maintaining demand-supply balance and regulating frequency are key issues in power system control. Conventional approaches focus on adjusting the generation so that it follows the load. However, relying on solely regulating generation is inefficient, especially for power systems where contingencies like a sudden loss in generation or a sudden change in load frequently occur. We present a frequency-based load control scheme for demand-supply balancing and frequency regulation. We formulate a load control optimization problem which aims to balance the change in load with the change in supply while minimizing the overall end-use disutility. By studying the power system model that characterizes the frequency response to real power imbalance between demand and supply, we design decentralized synchronous and asynchronous algorithms which take advantage of local frequency measurements to solve the load control problem. Case studies show that the proposed load control scheme is capable of relatively quickly balancing the power and restoring the frequency under generation-loss like contingencies, even when users only have the knowledge of a simplified system model instead of an accurate one.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/f5xnd-c8z22Swing dynamics as primal-dual algorithm for optimal load control
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20130828-101518387
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Topcu-U', 'name': {'family': 'Topcu', 'given': 'Ufuk'}}, {'id': 'Low-S-H', 'name': {'family': 'Low', 'given': 'Steven'}, 'orcid': '0000-0001-6476-3048'}]}
Year: 2012
DOI: 10.1109/SmartGridComm.2012.6486046
In electricity transmission networks, loads can provide flexible, fast responsive, and decentralized sources for frequency regulation and generation-demand balancing, complementary to generation control. We consider an optimal load control (OLC) problem in a transmission network, when a disturbance in generation occurs on an arbitrary subset of the buses. In OLC, the frequency-insensitive loads are reduced (or increased) in real-time in a way that balances the generation shortfall (or surplus), resynchronizes the bus frequencies, and minimizes the aggregate disutility of load control. We propose a frequency-based load control mechanism and show that the swing dynamics of the network, together with the proposed mechanism, act as a decentralized primal-dual algorithm to solve OLC. Simulation shows that the proposed mechanism can resynchronize the bus frequencies, balance demand with generation and achieve the optimum of OLC within several seconds after a disturbance in generation. Through simulation, we also compare the performance of the proposed mechanism with automatic generation control (AGC), and discuss the effect of their incorporation.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/w6w9y-cfd86Some Problems in Demand Side Management
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20130815-100621563
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Gan-Lingwen', 'name': {'family': 'Gan', 'given': 'Lingwen'}}, {'id': 'Jiang-Libin', 'name': {'family': 'Jiang', 'given': 'Libin'}}, {'id': 'Low-S-H', 'name': {'family': 'Low', 'given': 'Steven'}, 'orcid': '0000-0001-6476-3048'}, {'id': 'Topcu-U', 'name': {'family': 'Topcu', 'given': 'Ufuk'}}, {'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}]}
Year: 2012
We present a sample of problems in demand side
management in future power systems and illustrate how they
can be solved in a distributed manner using local information.
First, we consider a set of users served by a single load-serving
entity (LSE). The LSE procures capacity a day ahead. When
random renewable energy is realized at delivery time, it manages
user load through real-time demand response and purchases
balancing power on the spot market to meet the aggregate
demand. Hence optimal supply procurement by the LSE and the
consumption decisions by the users must be coordinated over two
timescales, a day ahead and in real time, in the presence of supply
uncertainty. Moreover, they must be computed jointly by the
LSE and the users since the necessary information is distributed
among them. We present distributed algorithms to maximize
expected social welfare. Instead of social welfare, the second
problem is to coordinate electric vehicle charging to fill the valleys
in aggregate electric demand profile, or track a given desired
profile. We present synchronous and asynchronous algorithms
and prove their convergence. Finally, we show how loads can
use locally measured frequency deviations to adapt in real time
their demand in response to a shortfall in supply. We design
decentralized demand response mechanism that, together with
the swing equation of the generators, jointly maximize disutility
of demand rationing, in a decentralized manner.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/a5yj9-kj319Optimal load-side control for frequency regulation in smart grids
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20150203-091127023
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Mallada-E', 'name': {'family': 'Mallada', 'given': 'Enrique'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-1568-1833'}, {'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Low-S-H', 'name': {'family': 'Low', 'given': 'Steven'}, 'orcid': '0000-0001-6476-3048'}]}
Year: 2014
DOI: 10.1109/ALLERTON.2014.7028527
Frequency control rebalances supply and demand while maintaining the network state within operational margins. It is implemented using fast ramping reserves that are expensive and wasteful, and which are expected to grow with the increasing penetration of renewables. The most promising solution to this problem is the use of demand response, i.e. load participation in frequency control. Yet it is still unclear how to efficiently integrate load participation without introducing instabilities and violating operational constraints. In this paper we present a comprehensive load-side frequency control mechanism that can maintain the grid within operational constraints. Our controllers can rebalance supply and demand after disturbances, restore the frequency to its nominal value and preserve inter-area power flows. Furthermore, our controllers are distributed (unlike generation-side), can allocate load updates optimally, and can maintain line flows within thermal limits. We prove that such a distributed load-side control is globally asymptotically stable and illustrate its convergence with simulation.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/k2vxs-4nb81Optimal decentralized primary frequency control in power networks
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170123-165356940
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Low-S-H', 'name': {'family': 'Low', 'given': 'Steven'}, 'orcid': '0000-0001-6476-3048'}]}
Year: 2014
DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2014.7039765
We augment existing generator-side primary frequency control with load-side control that are local, ubiquitous, and continuous. The mechanisms on both the generator and the load sides are decentralized in that their control decisions are functions of locally measurable frequency deviations. These local algorithms interact over the network through nonlinear power flows. We design the local frequency feedback control so that any equilibrium point of the closed-loop system is the solution to an optimization problem that minimizes the total generation cost and user disutility subject to power balance across entire network. With Lyapunov method we derive a sufficient condition for any equilibrium point of the closed-loop system to be asymptotically stable. A simulation demonstrates improvement in both the transient and steady-state performance over the traditional control only on generators, even when the total control capacity remains the same.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/5szw4-8t878Optimal Sizing of Voltage Control Devices for Distribution Circuit with Intermittent Load
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160121-102543977
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Chertkov-M', 'name': {'family': 'Chertkov', 'given': 'Michael'}}, {'id': 'Backhaus-S', 'name': {'family': 'Backhaus', 'given': 'Scott'}}]}
Year: 2015
DOI: 10.1109/HICSS.2015.323
We consider joint control of a switchable capacitor and a D-STATCOM for voltage regulation in a distribution circuit with intermittent load. The control problem is formulated as a two-timescale optimal power flow problem with chance constraints, which minimizes power loss while limiting the probability of voltage violations due to fast changes in load. The control problem forms the basis of an optimization problem which determines the sizes of the control devices by minimizing sum of the expected power loss cost and the capital cost. We develop computationally efficient heuristics to solve the optimal sizing problem and implement real-time control. Numerical experiments on a circuit with high-performance computing (HPC) load show that the proposed sizing and control schemes significantly improve the reliability of voltage regulation on the expense of only a moderate increase in cost.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/8q52c-fzz18Distributed Generator and Load-Side Secondary Frequency Control in Power Networks
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20150429-072859434
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Mallada-E', 'name': {'family': 'Mallada', 'given': 'Enrique'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-1568-1833'}, {'id': 'Low-S-H', 'name': {'family': 'Low', 'given': 'Steven H.'}, 'orcid': '0000-0001-6476-3048'}]}
Year: 2015
DOI: 10.1109/CISS.2015.7086825
We design a distributed secondary frequency control scheme for both generators and controllable loads. The proposed scheme operates via local sensing and computation, and neighborhood communication. Equilibrium and stability
analysis of the closed-loop system is performed with a power
network model including turbines and governors of generators
and nonlinear AC power flows. After a change in power supply
or demand, the proposed scheme is able to stabilize the system, restore bus frequencies and net inter-area power exchanges, and minimize total generation cost minus user utility at equilibrium.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/kpymp-a2s93Distributed frequency control for stability and economic dispatch in power networks
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20150804-132940825
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Mallada-E', 'name': {'family': 'Mallada', 'given': 'Enrique'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-1568-1833'}, {'id': 'Dörfler-F', 'name': {'family': 'Dörfler', 'given': 'Florian'}}]}
Year: 2015
DOI: 10.1109/ACC.2015.7171085
We explore two different frequency control strategies to ensure stability of power networks and achieve economic dispatch between generators and controllable loads. We first show the global asymptotic stability of a completely decentralized frequency integral control. Then we design a distributed averaging-based integral (DAI) control which operates by local frequency sensing and neighborhood communication. Equilibrium analysis shows that DAI recovers the nominal frequency with minimum total generation cost and user disutility for load control after a change in generation or load. Local asymptotic stability of DAI is established with a Lyapunov method. Simulations demonstrate improvement in both transient and steady-state performance achieved by the proposed control strategies, compared to droop control.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/zkn11-h2s67A unified framework for frequency control and congestion management
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20160823-102449874
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Mallada-E', 'name': {'family': 'Mallada', 'given': 'Enrique'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-1568-1833'}, {'id': 'Low-S-H', 'name': {'family': 'Low', 'given': 'Steven H.'}, 'orcid': '0000-0001-6476-3048'}, {'id': 'Bialek-J', 'name': {'family': 'Bialek', 'given': 'Janusz'}}]}
Year: 2016
DOI: 10.1109/PSCC.2016.7541028
The existing frequency control framework in power systems is challenged by lower inertia and more volatile power injections. We propose a new framework for frequency control and congestion management. We formulate an optimization problem that rebalances power, restores the nominal frequency, restores inter-area flows and maintains line flows below their limits in a way that minimizes the control cost. The cost can be squared deviations from the reference generations, minimizing the disruption from the last optimal dispatch. Our control thus maintains system security without interfering with the market operation. By deriving a primal-dual algorithm to solve this optimization, we design a completely decentralized primary frequency control without the need for explicit communication among the participating agents, and a distributed unified control which integrates primary and secondary frequency control and congestion management. Simulations show that the unified control not only achieves all the desired control goals in system equilibrium, but also improves the transient compared to traditional control schemes.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/9qbcj-wfm82Decentralized Optimal Frequency Control of Interconnected Power Systems with Transient Constraints
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170111-135813725
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Wang-Zhaojian', 'name': {'family': 'Wang', 'given': 'Zhaojian'}, 'orcid': '0000-0002-4998-6339'}, {'id': 'Liu-Feng', 'name': {'family': 'Liu', 'given': 'Feng'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-2279-2558'}, {'id': 'Low-S-H', 'name': {'family': 'Low', 'given': 'Steven H.'}, 'orcid': '0000-0001-6476-3048'}, {'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Mei-Shengwei', 'name': {'family': 'Mei', 'given': 'Shengwei'}, 'orcid': '0000-0002-2757-5977'}]}
Year: 2016
DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2016.7798345
We design decentralized frequency control of multi-area power systems that will re-balance power and drive frequencies to their nominal values after a disturbance. Both generators and controllable loads are utilized to achieve frequency stability while minimizing regulation cost. In contrast to recent results, the design is completely decentralized and does not require communication between areas. Our control enforces operational constraints not only in equilibrium but also during transient. Moreover, our control is capable of adapting to unknown load disturbance. We show that the closed-loop system is asymptotically stable and converges to an equilibrium that minimizes the regulation cost. We present simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of our design.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/0h1k9-nza14Cyber Network Design for Secondary Frequency Regulation: A Spectral Approach
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20180906-143422101
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Guo-Linqi', 'name': {'family': 'Guo', 'given': 'Linqi'}}, {'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Low-S-H', 'name': {'family': 'Low', 'given': 'Steven H.'}, 'orcid': '0000-0001-6476-3048'}]}
Year: 2018
DOI: 10.23919/PSCC.2018.8442814
We present a preliminary theoretical framework based on spectral graph theory that captures how the cyber topology of a distributed secondary frequency control scheme impacts the stability, optimality, and transient performance of our power system as a cyber-physical network. We show that a collection of polynomials defined in terms of the cyber and physical Laplacian eigenvalues encode information on the interplay between cyber and physical networks. It is demonstrated that to understand the impact of adding cyber connectivity, one should separate the low-damping and high-damping regimes. Although adding cyber connectivity always improves the performance for high-damping systems, it is not the case for low-damping scenarios. Based on the theoretical study, we discuss how a good cyber network should be designed. Our empirical study shows that for practical systems, the number of communication channels that is needed to achieve near-optimal performance is usually less than twice the number of buses.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/7cwt2-6p715Profit-Maximizing Planning and Control of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Primary Frequency Control
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190104-140522282
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Zhang-Angela-Yingjun', 'name': {'family': 'Zhang', 'given': 'Angela Yingjun'}}, {'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Low-S-H', 'name': {'family': 'Low', 'given': 'Steven'}, 'orcid': '0000-0001-6476-3048'}, {'id': 'Tang-Wanrong', 'name': {'family': 'Tang', 'given': 'Wanrong'}}]}
Year: 2018
DOI: 10.1109/pesgm.2018.8586290
We consider a two-level profit-maximizing strategy, including planning and control, for battery energy storage system (BESS) owners that participate in the primary frequency control (PFC) market. Specifically, the optimal BESS control minimizes the operating cost by keeping the state of charge (SoC) in an optimal range. Through rigorous analysis, we prove that the optimal BESS control is a "state-invariant" strategy in the sense that the optimal SoC range does not vary with the state of the system. As such, the optimal control strategy can be computed offline once and for all with very low complexity. Regarding the BESS planning, we prove that the the minimum operating cost is a decreasing convex function of the BESS energy capacity. This leads to the optimal BESS sizing that strikes a balance between the capital investment and operating cost. Our work here provides a useful theoretical framework for understanding the planning and control strategies that maximize the economic benefits of BESSs in ancillary service markets.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/8fsct-8gh48Distributed Frequency Control with Operational Constraints, Part II: Network Power Balance
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190104-142158857
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Wang-Zhaojian', 'name': {'family': 'Wang', 'given': 'Zhaojian'}, 'orcid': '0000-0002-4998-6339'}, {'id': 'Liu-Feng', 'name': {'family': 'Liu', 'given': 'Feng'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-2279-2558'}, {'id': 'Low-S-H', 'name': {'family': 'Low', 'given': 'Steven'}, 'orcid': '0000-0001-6476-3048'}, {'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Mei-Shengwei', 'name': {'family': 'Mei', 'given': 'Shengwei'}, 'orcid': '0000-0002-2757-5977'}]}
Year: 2018
DOI: 10.1109/pesgm.2018.8586037
In Part I of this paper we propose a decentralized optimal frequency control of multi-area power system with operational constraints, where the tie-line powers remain unchanged in the steady state and the power mismatch is balanced within individual control areas. In Part II of the paper, we propose a distributed controller for optimal frequency control in the network power balance case, where the power mismatch is balanced over the whole system. With the proposed controller, the tie-line powers remain within the acceptable range at equilibrium, while the regulation capacity constraints are satisfied both at equilibrium and during transient. It is revealed that the closed-loop system with the proposed controller carries out primal-dual updates with saturation for solving an associated optimization problem. To cope with discontinuous dynamics of the closed-loop system, we deploy the invariance principle for nonpathological Lyapunov function to prove its asymptotic stability. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of our controller.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/2r1bj-9d227Graph Laplacian Spectrum and Primary Frequency Regulation
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20190204-110323666
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Guo-Linqi', 'name': {'family': 'Guo', 'given': 'Linqi'}}, {'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Low-S-H', 'name': {'family': 'Low', 'given': 'Steven H.'}, 'orcid': '0000-0001-6476-3048'}]}
Year: 2018
DOI: 10.1109/CDC.2018.8619252
We present a framework based on spectral graph theory that captures the interplay among network topology, system inertia, and generator and load damping in determining the overall grid behavior and performance. Specifically, we show that the impact of network topology on a power system can be quantified through the network Laplacian eigenvalues, and such eigenvalues determine the grid robustness against low frequency disturbances. Moreover, we can explicitly decompose the frequency signal along scaled Laplacian eigenvectors when damping-inertia ratios are uniform across buses. The insight revealed by this framework partially explains why load-side participation in frequency regulation not only makes the system respond faster, but also helps lower the system nadir after a disturbance. Finally, by presenting a new controller specifically tailored to suppress high frequency disturbances, we demonstrate that our results can provide useful guidelines in the controller design for load-side primary frequency regulation. This improved controller is simulated on the IEEE 39-bus New England interconnection system to illustrate its robustness against high frequency oscillations compared to both the conventional droop control and a recent controller design.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/ezh7h-8fd72Approaching Prosumer Social Optimum via Energy Sharing with Proof of Convergence
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20210503-115704998
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Chen-Yue', 'name': {'family': 'Chen', 'given': 'Yue'}, 'orcid': '0000-0002-7594-7587'}, {'id': 'Zhao-Changhong', 'name': {'family': 'Zhao', 'given': 'Changhong'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-0539-8591'}, {'id': 'Low-S-H', 'name': {'family': 'Low', 'given': 'Steven H.'}, 'orcid': '0000-0001-6476-3048'}, {'id': 'Mei-Shengwei', 'name': {'family': 'Mei', 'given': 'Shengwei'}, 'orcid': '0000-0002-2757-5977'}]}
Year: 2021
DOI: 10.1109/ciss50987.2021.9400276
The conventional power system operation approach has been proven to be effective and reliable for decades. Specially, at the demand side, customers are managed centrally by aggregators and usually not price-responsive. With the prevalence of distributed energy resources (DERs), traditional consumers are now endowed with the ability to produce energy, turning into so-called prosumers. Prosumers can tradeoff between supply and demand and participate in energy management proactively. At the same time, the intermittent and uncertain nature of DERs call for a stronger capability of dealing with real-time energy fluctuation. In this context, exploiting demand-side flexibility to support real-time energy balancing, which can reduce required generation reserves and save costs, is a promising direction for energy system modernization. However, the traditional centralized scheme fails to allow a prosumer to act upon its profit-maximizing philosophy, which reduces prosumer incentives and restricts demand-side flexibility. Therefore, a new prosumer-oriented approach is desired.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/wb0wr-p3f29