Abstract: Achieving quantum computational advantage requires solving a classically intractable problem on a quantum device. Natural proposals rely upon the intrinsic hardness of classically simulating quantum mechanics; however, verifying the output is itself classically intractable. On the other hand, certain quantum algorithms (e.g. prime factorization via Shor's algorithm) are efficiently verifiable, but require more resources than what is available on near-term devices. One way to bridge the gap between verifiability and implementation is to use "interactions" between a prover and a verifier. By leveraging cryptographic functions, such protocols enable the classical verifier to enforce consistency in a quantum prover's responses across multiple rounds of interaction. In this work, we demonstrate the first implementation of an interactive quantum advantage protocol, using an ion trap quantum computer. We execute two complementary protocols -- one based upon the learning with errors problem and another where the cryptographic construction implements a computational Bell test. To perform multiple rounds of interaction, we implement mid-circuit measurements on a subset of trapped ion qubits, with subsequent coherent evolution. For both protocols, the performance exceeds the asymptotic bound for classical behavior; maintaining this fidelity at scale would conclusively demonstrate verifiable quantum advantage.

Publication: arXiv
ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20220202-191905591

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Abstract: We establish a strong monogamy-of-entanglement property for subspace coset states, which are uniform superpositions of vectors in a linear subspace of F^n₂ to which has been applied a quantum one-time pad. This property was conjectured recently by [Coladangelo, Liu, Liu, and Zhandry, Crypto'21] and shown to have applications to unclonable decryption and copy-protection of pseudorandom functions. We present two proofs, one which directly follows the method of the original paper and the other which uses an observation from [Vidick and Zhang, Eurocrypt'20] to reduce the analysis to a simpler monogamy game based on BB'84 states. Both proofs ultimately rely on the same proof technique, introduced in [Tomamichel, Fehr, Kaniewski and Wehner, New Journal of Physics '13].

Publication: arXiv
ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20211006-152638528

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Abstract: Low degree tests play an important role in classical complexity theory, serving as basic ingredients in foundational results such as MIP = NEXP [BFL91] and the PCP theorem [AS98,ALM+98]. Over the last ten years, versions of these tests which are sound against quantum provers have found increasing applications to the study of nonlocal games and the complexity class MIP^*. The culmination of this line of work is the result MIP^* = RE [arXiv:2001.04383]. One of the key ingredients in the first reported proof of MIP^* = RE is a two-prover variant of the low degree test, initially shown to be sound against multiple quantum provers in [arXiv:1302.1242]. Unfortunately a mistake was recently discovered in the latter result, invalidating the main result of [arXiv:1302.1242] as well as its use in subsequent works, including [arXiv:2001.04383]. We analyze a variant of the low degree test called the low individual degree test. Our main result is that the two-player version of this test is sound against quantum provers. This soundness result is sufficient to re-derive several bounds on MIP^* that relied on [arXiv:1302.1242], including MIP^* = RE.

Publication: arXiv
ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20211004-222652076

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Abstract: We define the notion of a proof of knowledge in the setting where the verifier is classical, but the prover is quantum, and where the witness that the prover holds is in general a quantum state. We establish simple properties of our definition, including that nondestructive classical proofs of quantum knowledge are impossible for nontrivial states, and that, under certain conditions on the parameters in our definition, a proof of knowledge protocol for a hard-to-clone state can be used as a (destructive) quantum money verification protocol. In addition, we provide two examples of protocols (both inspired by private-key classical verification protocols for quantum money schemes) which we can show to be proofs of quantum knowledge under our definition. In so doing, we introduce new techniques for the analysis of such protocols which build on results from the literature on nonlocal games. Finally, we show that, under our definition, the verification protocol introduced by Mahadev (FOCS 2018) is a classical argument of quantum knowledge for QMA relations.

Publication: arXiv
ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20200728-145122122

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Abstract: A non-interactive zero-knowledge (NIZK) proof system for a language L∈NP allows a prover (who is provided with an instance x∈L, and a witness w for x) to compute a classical certificate π for the claim that x∈L such that π has the following properties: 1) π can be verified efficiently, and 2) π does not reveal any information about w, besides the fact that it exists (i.e. that x∈L). NIZK proof systems have recently been shown to exist for all languages in NP in the common reference string (CRS) model and under the learning with errors (LWE) assumption. We initiate the study of NIZK arguments for languages in QMA. Our first main result is the following: if LWE is hard for quantum computers, then any language in QMA has an NIZK argument with preprocessing. The preprocessing in our argument system consists of (i) the generation of a CRS and (ii) a single (instance-independent) quantum message from verifier to prover. The instance-dependent phase of our argument system involves only a single classical message from prover to verifier. Importantly, verification in our protocol is entirely classical, and the verifier needs not have quantum memory; its only quantum actions are in the preprocessing phase. Our second contribution is to extend the notion of a classical proof of knowledge to the quantum setting. We introduce the notions of arguments and proofs of quantum knowledge (AoQK/PoQK), and we show that our non-interactive argument system satisfies the definition of an AoQK. In particular, we explicitly construct an extractor which can recover a quantum witness from any prover who is successful in our protocol. We also show that any language in QMA has an (interactive) proof of quantum knowledge.

Publication: arXiv
ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20200110-140701565

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Abstract: We give an arguably simpler and more direct proof of a recent result by Miller, Jain and Shi, who proved device-independent security of a protocol for quantum key distribution in which the devices can be used in parallel. Our proof combines existing results on immunization (Kempe et al., SICOMP 2011) and parallel repetition (Bavarian et al., STOC 2017) of entangled games.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20190320-102806367

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Abstract: We give a simple proof of the exponential de Finetti theorem due to Renner. Like Renner's proof, ours combines the post-selection de Finetti theorem, the Gentle Measurement lemma, and the Chernoff bound, but avoids virtually all calculations, including any use of the theory of types.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20190320-103022957

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Abstract: We give the first construction of a family of quantum-proof extractors that has optimal seed length dependence O(log(n/ǫ)) on the input length n and error ǫ. Our extractors support any min-entropy k = Ω(log n + log1+α (1/ǫ)) and extract m = (1 − α)k bits that are ǫ-close to uniform, for any desired constant α > 0. Previous constructions had a quadratically worse seed length or were restricted to very large input min-entropy or very few output bits. Our result is based on a generic reduction showing that any strong classical condenser is automatically quantum-proof, with comparable parameters. The existence of such a reduction for extractors is a long-standing open question; here we give an affirmative answer for condensers. Once this reduction is established, to obtain our quantum-proof extractors one only needs to consider high entropy sources. We construct quantum-proof extractors with the desired parameters for such sources by extending a classical approach to extractor construction, based on the use of block-sources and sampling, to the quantum setting. Our extractors can be used to obtain improved protocols for device-independent randomness expansion and for privacy amplification.

Publication: arXiv
ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20160517-182619760

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Abstract: We prove a moment majorization principle for matrix-valued functions with domain {−1,1}^m, m∈N. The principle is an inequality between higher-order moments of a non-commutative multilinear polynomial with different random matrix ensemble inputs, where each variable has small influence and the variables are instantiated independently. This technical result can be interpreted as a noncommutative generalization of one of the two inequalities of the seminal invariance principle of Mossel, O'Donnell and Oleszkiewicz. Our main application is sharp Unique Games hardness for two versions of the noncommutative Grothendieck inequality. This generalizes a result of Raghavendra and Steurer who established hardness of approximation for the commutative Grothendieck inequality. A similar application was proven recently by Briët, Regev and Saket using different techniques.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20190320-103637958

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Abstract: We give a quantum multiprover interactive proof system for the local Hamiltonian problem in which there is a constant number of provers, questions are classical of length polynomial in the number of qubits, and answers are of constant length. The main novelty of our protocol is that the gap between completeness and soundness is directly proportional to the promise gap on the (normalized) ground state energy of the Hamiltonian. This result can be interpreted as a concrete step towards a quantum PCP theorem giving entangled-prover interactive proof systems for QMA-complete problems. The key ingredient is a quantum version of the classical linearity test of Blum, Luby, and Rubinfeld, where the function f : {0,1}^n → {0,1} is replaced by a pair of functions X,Z : {0,1}^n → Obs_d(C), the set of d-dimensional Hermitian matrices that square to identity. The test enforces that (i) each function is exactly linear, X(a)X(b) = X(a+b) and Z(a)Z(b) = Z(a+b), and (ii) the two functions are approximately complementary, X(a)Z(b) ≈ (−1)^(a⋅b)Z(b)X(a).

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20160318-160143988

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Abstract: Two major open problems regarding the parallel repetition of games are whether an analogue of Raz's parallel-repetition theorem holds for (a) games with more than two players, and (b) games with quantum players using entanglement. We make progress on both problems: we introduce a class of games we call anchored, and prove exponential-decay parallel repetition theorems for anchored games in the multiplayer and entangled-player settings. We introduce a simple transformation on games called anchoring and show that this transformation turns any game into an anchored game. Together, our parallel repetition theorem and our anchoring transformation provide a simple and efficient hardness-amplification technique in both the classical multiplayer and quantum settings.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20160318-152740730

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Abstract: We present an analysis of Wiesner's quantum money scheme, as well as some natural generalizations of it, based on semidefinite programming. For Wiesner's original scheme, it is determined that the optimal probability for a counterfeiter to create two copies of a bank note from one, where both copies pass the bank's test for validity, is (3/4)^n for n being the number of qubits used for each note. Generalizations in which other ensembles of states are substituted for the one considered by Wiesner are also discussed, including a scheme recently proposed by Pastawski, Yao, Jiang, Lukin, and Cirac, as well as schemes based on higher dimensional quantum systems. In addition, we introduce a variant of Wiesner's quantum money in which the verification protocol for bank notes involves only classical communication with the bank. We show that the optimal probability with which a counterfeiter can succeed in two independent verification attempts, given access to a single valid n-qubit bank note, is (3/4+√2/8)^n. We also analyze extensions of this variant to higher-dimensional schemes.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20190320-104220786

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Abstract: We introduce a protocol through which a pair of quantum mechanical devices may be used to generate n bits of true randomness from a seed of O(log n) uniform bits. The bits generated are certifiably random based only on a simple statistical test that can be performed by the user, and on the assumption that the devices obey the no-signaling principle. No other assumptions are placed on the devices' inner workings. A modified protocol uses a seed of O(log^3 n) uniformly random bits to generate n bits of true randomness even conditioned on the state of a quantum adversary who may have had prior access to the devices, and may be entangled with them.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20190320-104707093

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Abstract: XOR games are a simple computational model with connections to many areas of complexity theory. Perhaps the earliest use of XOR games was in the study of quantum correlations. XOR games also have an interesting connection to Grothendieck's inequality, a fundamental theorem of analysis, which shows that two players sharing entanglement can achieve at most a constant factor advantage over players following classical strategies in an XOR game. Perez-Garcia et al. show that when the players share GHZ states, this advantage is bounded by a constant. We use a multilinear generalization of Grothendieck's inequality due to Blei and Tonge to simplify the proof of the second result and extend it to the case of so-called Schmidt states, answering an open problem of Perez-Garcia et al. Via a reduction given in that paper, this answers a 35-year-old problem in operator algebras due to Varopoulos, showing that the space of compact operators on a Hilbert space is a Q-algebra under Schur product. A further generalization of Grothendieck's inequality due to Carne lets us show that the gap between the entangled and classical value is at most a constant in any multiplayer XOR game in which the players are allowed to share combinations of GHZ states and EPR pairs of any dimension. As an application of our results, we show that the discrepancy method in communication complexity remains a lower bound in the multiparty model where the players have quantum communication and the kinds of entanglement discussed above. This answers an open question of Lee, Schechtman, and Shraibman.

Publication: arXiv
ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20190320-111726313

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Abstract: We show that the value of a general two-prover quantum game cannot be computed by a semidefinite program of polynomial size (unless P=NP), a method that has been successful in more restricted quantum games. More precisely, we show that proof of membership in the NP-complete problem GAP-3D-MATCHING can be obtained by a 2-prover, 1-round quantum interactive proof system where the provers share entanglement, with perfect completeness and soundness s = 1 − 2^(−O(n)), and such that the space of the verifier and the size of the messages are O(log n). This implies that QMIP*_(log n,1,1−2−O(n))⊈ P unless P = NP and provides the first non-trivial lower bound on the power of entangled quantum provers, albeit with an exponentially small gap. The gap achievable by our proof system might in fact be larger, provided a certain conjecture on almost commuting versus nearly commuting projector matrices is true.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20160322-085312434

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