Random matrix theory has seen rapid development in recent years. In particular, researchers have developed many non-asymptotic matrix concentration inequalities that parallel powerful scalar concentration inequalities. In this thesis, we focus on three topics: 1) estimating sparse covariance matrix using matrix concentration inequalities, 2) constructing the matrix phi-entropy to derive matrix concentration inequalities, 3) developing scalable algorithms to solve the phase recovery problem of ptychography based on low-rank matrix factorization.

Estimation of covariance matrix is an important subject. In the setting of high dimensional statistics, the number of samples can be small in comparison to the dimension of the problem, thus estimating the complete covariance matrix is unfeasible. By assuming that the covariance matrix satisfies some sparsity assumptions, prior work has proved that it is feasible to estimate the sparse covariance matrix of Gaussian distribution using the masked sample covariance estimator. In this thesis, we use a new approach and apply non-asymptotic matrix concentration inequalities to obtain tight sample bounds for estimating the sparse covariance matrix of subgaussian distributions.

The entropy method is a powerful approach in developing scalar concentration inequalities. The key ingredient is the subadditivity property that scalar entropy function exhibits. In this thesis, we construct a new concept of matrix phi-entropy and prove that matrix phi-entropy also satisfies a subadditivity property similar to the scalar form. We apply this new concept of matrix phi-entropy to derive non-asymptotic matrix concentration inequalities.

Ptychography is a computational imaging technique which transforms low-resolution intensity-only images into a high-resolution complex recovery of the signal. Conventional algorithms are based on alternating projection, which lacks theoretical guarantees for their performance. In this thesis, we construct two new algorithms. The first algorithm relies on a convex formulation of the ptychography problem and on low-rank matrix recovery. This algorithm improves traditional approaches’ performance but has high computational cost. The second algorithm achieves near-linear runtime and memory complexity by factorizing the objective matrix into its low-rank components and approximates the first algorithm’s imaging quality.

}, address = {1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125}, advisor = {Tropp, Joel A.}, } @phdthesis{10.7907/Z9F18WQS, author = {Bruer, John Jacob}, title = {Recovering Structured Low-rank Operators Using Nuclear Norms}, school = {California Institute of Technology}, year = {2017}, doi = {10.7907/Z9F18WQS}, url = {https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:02082017-062956314}, abstract = {This work considers the problem of recovering matrices and operators from limited and/or noisy observations. Whereas matrices result from summing tensor products of vectors, operators result from summing tensor products of matrices. These constructions lead to viewing both matrices and operators as the sum of “simple” rank-1 factors.

A popular line of work in this direction is low-rank matrix recovery, i.e., using linear measurements of a matrix to reconstruct it as the sum of few rank-1 factors. Rank minimization problems are hard in general, and a popular approach to avoid them is convex relaxation. Using the trace norm as a surrogate for rank, the low-rank matrix recovery problem becomes convex.

While the trace norm has received much attention in the literature, other convexifications are possible. This thesis focuses on the class of nuclear norms—a class that includes the trace norm itself. Much as the trace norm is a convex surrogate for the matrix rank, other nuclear norms provide convex complexity measures for additional matrix structure. Namely, nuclear norms measure the structure of the factors used to construct the matrix.

Transitioning to the operator framework allows for novel uses of nuclear norms in recovering these structured matrices. In particular, this thesis shows how to lift structured matrix factorization problems to rank-1 operator recovery problems. This new viewpoint allows nuclear norms to measure richer types of structures present in matrix factorizations.

This work also includes a Python software package to model and solve structured operator recovery problems. Systematic numerical experiments in operator denoising demonstrate the effectiveness of nuclear norms in recovering structured operators. In particular, choosing a specific nuclear norm that corresponds to the underlying factor structure of the operator improves the performance of the recovery procedures when compared, for instance, to the trace norm. Applications in hyperspectral imaging and self-calibration demonstrate the additional flexibility gained by utilizing operator (as opposed to matrix) factorization models.

}, address = {1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125}, advisor = {Tropp, Joel A.}, } @phdthesis{10.7907/156S-EZ89, author = {McCoy, Michael Brian}, title = {A Geometric Analysis of Convex Demixing}, school = {California Institute of Technology}, year = {2013}, doi = {10.7907/156S-EZ89}, url = {https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:05202013-091317123}, abstract = {Demixing is the task of identifying multiple signals given only their sum and prior information about their structures. Examples of demixing problems include (i) separating a signal that is sparse with respect to one basis from a signal that is sparse with respect to a second basis; (ii) decomposing an observed matrix into low-rank and sparse components; and (iii) identifying a binary codeword with impulsive corruptions. This thesis describes and analyzes a convex optimization framework for solving an array of demixing problems.

Our framework includes a random orientation model for the constituent signals that ensures the structures are incoherent. This work introduces a summary parameter, the statistical dimension, that reflects the intrinsic complexity of a signal. The main result indicates that the difficulty of demixing under this random model depends only on the total complexity of the constituent signals involved: demixing succeeds with high probability when the sum of the complexities is less than the ambient dimension; otherwise, it fails with high probability.

The fact that a phase transition between success and failure occurs in demixing is a consequence of a new inequality in conic integral geometry. Roughly speaking, this inequality asserts that a convex cone behaves like a subspace whose dimension is equal to the statistical dimension of the cone. When combined with a geometric optimality condition for demixing, this inequality provides precise quantitative information about the phase transition, including the location and width of the transition region.

}, address = {1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125}, advisor = {Tropp, Joel A.}, } @phdthesis{10.7907/3K1S-R458, author = {Gittens, Alex A.}, title = {Topics in Randomized Numerical Linear Algebra}, school = {California Institute of Technology}, year = {2013}, doi = {10.7907/3K1S-R458}, url = {https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:06102013-100609092}, abstract = {This thesis studies three classes of randomized numerical linear algebra algorithms, namely: (i) randomized matrix sparsification algorithms, (ii) low-rank approximation algorithms that use randomized unitary transformations, and (iii) low-rank approximation algorithms for positive-semidefinite (PSD) matrices.

Randomized matrix sparsification algorithms set randomly chosen entries of the input matrix to zero. When the approximant is substituted for the original matrix in computations, its sparsity allows one to employ faster sparsity-exploiting algorithms. This thesis contributes bounds on the approximation error of nonuniform randomized sparsification schemes, measured in the spectral norm and two NP-hard norms that are of interest in computational graph theory and subset selection applications.

Low-rank approximations based on randomized unitary transformations have several desirable properties: they have low communication costs, are amenable to parallel implementation, and exploit the existence of fast transform algorithms. This thesis investigates the tradeoff between the accuracy and cost of generating such approximations. State-of-the-art spectral and Frobenius-norm error bounds are provided.

The last class of algorithms considered are SPSD “sketching” algorithms. Such sketches can be computed faster than approximations based on projecting onto mixtures of the columns of the matrix. The performance of several such sketching schemes is empirically evaluated using a suite of canonical matrices drawn from machine learning and data analysis applications, and a framework is developed for establishing theoretical error bounds.

In addition to studying these algorithms, this thesis extends the Matrix Laplace Transform framework to derive Chernoff and Bernstein inequalities that apply to all the eigenvalues of certain classes of random matrices. These inequalities are used to investigate the behavior of the singular values of a matrix under random sampling, and to derive convergence rates for each individual eigenvalue of a sample covariance matrix.

}, address = {1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, California 91125}, advisor = {Tropp, Joel A.}, }