Article records
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A Caltech Library Repository Feedhttp://www.rssboard.org/rss-specificationpython-feedgenenTue, 16 Apr 2024 14:13:51 +0000Transient heat flux measurement using a surface junction thermocouple
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:SANrsi02
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Sanderson-S-R', 'name': {'family': 'Sanderson', 'given': 'S. R.'}}, {'id': 'Sturtevant-B', 'name': {'family': 'Sturtevant', 'given': 'B.'}}]}
Year: 2002
DOI: 10.1063/1.1484255
A new form of surface junction thermocouple sensor has been developed and tested. The novel feature of the design is the use of a tapered fit between two coaxial thermocouple elements to form a thin, robust junction. The gauge has a response time on the order of 1 µs and is suitable for measuring large transient heat fluxes in hypervelocity wind tunnels. Asymptotic analysis is used to demonstrate the operating principles and to assess the errors associated with the finite thickness of the surface junction. Spectral deconvolution methods are used to infer a mean square optimal estimate of the surface heat flux from time resolved surface temperature measurements. This improved signal processing method is applicable to transient heat flux gauges of all types. Potential reducible error sources and other systematic errors are described. Measurements of the heat flux about the forebody of a cylindrical body in a hypervelocity flow demonstrate the functioning of the gauge and are used to obtain statistical estimates of the repeatability of the technique. The measured heat fluxes are compared with established theoretical predictions.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/q9m9q-saj79Aspects of planar, oblique and interacting shock waves in an ideal dissociating gas
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:SANpof03
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Sanderson-S-R', 'name': {'family': 'Sanderson', 'given': 'S. R.'}}, {'id': 'Hornung-H-G', 'name': {'family': 'Hornung', 'given': 'H. G.'}, 'orcid': '0000-0002-4903-8419'}, {'id': 'Sturtevant-B', 'name': {'family': 'Sturtevant', 'given': 'B.'}}]}
Year: 2003
DOI: 10.1063/1.1572162
We develop a compact dimensionless framework for the analysis of canonical thermo-chemical nonequilibrium flow fields involving normal, oblique and interacting shock waves. Discontinuous solutions of the conservation equations are coupled with thermodynamic and kinetic models for an ideal dissociating gas. Convenient forms are provided for the variation of the relevant dimensionless parameters across shock waves in dissociating gases. The treatment is carried through in a consistent manner for the pressure–flow deflection angle plane representation of shock wave interaction problems. The contribution of the current paper is a careful nondimensionalization of the problem that yields a tractable formulation and allows results with considerable generality to be obtained.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/8xrat-fcd88Gasdynamic wave interaction in two spatial dimensions
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:SANjfm04b
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Sanderson-S-R', 'name': {'family': 'Sanderson', 'given': 'S. R.'}}]}
Year: 2004
DOI: 10.1017/S0022112004008316
We examine the interaction of shock waves by studying solutions of the two-dimensional Euler equations about a point. The problem is reduced to linear form by considering local solutions that are constant along each ray and thereby exhibit no length scale at the intersection point. Closed-form solutions are obtained in a unified manner for standard gasdynamics problems including oblique shock waves, Prandtl–Meyer flow and Mach reflection. These canonical gas dynamical problems are shown to reduce to a series of geometrical transformations involving anisotropic coordinate stretching and rotation operations. An entropy condition and a requirement for geometric regularity of the intersection of the incident waves are used to eliminate spurious solutions. Consideration of the downstream boundary conditions leads to a formal determination of the allowable downstream matching criteria. By retaining the time-dependent terms, an approach is suggested for future investigation of the open problem of the stability of shock wave interactions.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/g16ne-ejc13The influence of non-equilibrium dissociation on the flow produced by shock impingement on a blunt body
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:SANjfm04
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Sanderson-S-R', 'name': {'family': 'Sanderson', 'given': 'S. R.'}}, {'id': 'Hornung-H-G', 'name': {'family': 'Hornung', 'given': 'H. G.'}, 'orcid': '0000-0002-4903-8419'}, {'id': 'Sturtevant-B', 'name': {'family': 'Sturtevant', 'given': 'B.'}}]}
Year: 2004
DOI: 10.1017/S0022112004000357
We describe an investigation of the effects of non-equilibrium thermochemistry on the interaction between a weak oblique shock and the strong bow shock formed by a blunt body in hypersonic flow. This type of shock-on-shock interaction, also known as an Edney type IV interaction, causes locally intense enhancement of the surface heat transfer rate. A supersonic jet is formed by the nonlinear interaction that occurs between the two shock waves and elevated heat transfer rates and surface pressures are produced by the impingement of the supersonic jet on the body. The current paper is motivated by previous studies suggesting that real gas effects would significantly increase the severity of the phenomenon.
Experiments are described in which a free-piston shock tunnel is used to produce shock interaction flows with significant gas dissociation. Surprisingly, the data that are obtained show no significant stagnation enthalpy dependence of the ratio of the peak heat transfer rates with and without shock interaction, in contrast to existing belief. The geometry investigated is the nominally two-dimensional flow about a cylinder with coplanar impinging shock wave. Holographic interferometry is used to visualize the flow field and to quantify increases in the stagnation density caused by shock interaction. Time-resolved heat transfer measurements are obtained from surface junction thermocouples about the model forebody.
An improved model is developed to elucidate the finite-rate thermochemical processes occurring in the interaction region. It is shown that severe heat transfer intensification is a result of a jet shock structure that minimizes the entropy rise of the supersonic jet fluid whereas strong thermochemical effects are promoted by conditions that maximize the entropy rise (and hence temperature). This dichotomy underlies the smaller than anticipated influence of real gas effects on the heat transfer intensification. The model accurately predicts the measured heat transfer rates. Improved understanding of the influence of real gas effects on the shock interaction phenomenon reduces a significant element of risk in the design of hypersonic vehicles. The peak heat transfer rate for the Edney type IV interaction is shown to be well-correlated, in the weak impinging shock regime, by an expression of the form [equation] for use in practical design calculations.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/rbgfp-6sw75Simple, adjustable beam splitting element for differential interferometers based on photoelastic birefringence of a prismatic bar
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:SANrsi05
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Sanderson-S-R', 'name': {'family': 'Sanderson', 'given': 'S. R.'}}]}
Year: 2005
DOI: 10.1063/1.2132271
We examine the prototypical Toepler optical arrangement for the visualization of phase objects and consider the effect of different contrast elements placed at the focus of the source. In particular, Wollaston prism beam splitting elements based on the crystallographic birefringence of calcite or quartz find application in differential interferometry systems based on the Toepler arrangement. The focus of the current article is a simple low cost alternative to the Wollaston prism that is realized by inserting a prismatic bar constructed of a photoelastic material into the optical path. It is shown that, under the action of an applied bending moment, the prismatic bar functions as a first-order approximation to a Wollaston prism. Results are derived for the divergence angle of the beam splitter for orthogonally polarized rays. The implementation of a practical device is discussed and representative experimental results are presented, taken from the field of shock wave visualization in supersonic flow.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/0sbcp-qkr23Reactant jetting in unstable detonation
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20100412-082045136
Authors: {'items': [{'id': 'Sanderson-S-R', 'name': {'family': 'Sanderson', 'given': 'S. R.'}}, {'id': 'Austin-J-M', 'name': {'family': 'Austin', 'given': 'J. M.'}}, {'id': 'Liang-Zhe', 'name': {'family': 'Liang', 'given': 'Z.'}}, {'id': 'Pintgen-F', 'name': {'family': 'Pintgen', 'given': 'F.'}}, {'id': 'Shepherd-J-E', 'name': {'family': 'Shepherd', 'given': 'J. E.'}, 'orcid': '0000-0003-3181-9310'}, {'id': 'Hornung-H-G', 'name': {'family': 'Hornung', 'given': 'H. G.'}, 'orcid': '0000-0002-4903-8419'}]}
Year: 2010
DOI: 10.1016/j.paerosci.2009.11.002
We note the common existence of a supersonic jet structure locally embedded within a surrounding transonic flow field in the hitherto unrelated phenomena of unstable gaseous detonation and hypervelocity blunt body shock wave interaction. Extending prior results that demonstrate the consequences of reduced endothermic reaction rate for the supersonic jet fluid in the blunt body case, we provide an explanation for observations of locally reduced OH PLIF signal in images of the keystone reaction zone structure of weakly unstable detonations. Modeling these flow features as exothermically reacting jets with similarly reduced reaction rates, we demonstrate a mechanism for jetting of bulk pockets of unreacted fluid with potentially differing kinetic pathways into the region behind the primary detonation front of strongly unstable mixtures. We examine the impact of mono-atomic and diatomic diluents on transverse structure. The results yield insight into the mechanisms of transition and characteristic features of both weakly and strongly unstable mixtures.https://authors.library.caltech.edu/records/7vnef-qzg29