Abstract: We give a new construction of noncommutative surfaces via elliptic difference operators, attaching a 1-parameter noncommutative deformation to any projective rational surface with smooth anticanonical curve. The construction agrees with one implicit in work of Van den Bergh (iterated blowups of noncommutative Hirzebruch surfaces), but the construction enables one to prove a number of new facts about these surfaces. We show that they are noncommutative smooth proper surfaces in the sense of Chan and Nyman, with projective Quot schemes, that moduli spaces of simple sheaves are Poisson and that moduli spaces classifying semistable sheaves of rank 0 or 1 are projective. We further show that the action of SL_2(Z) as derived autoequivalences of rational elliptic surfaces extends to an action as derived equivalences of surfaces in our family with K^2=0. We also discuss applications to the theory of special functions arising by interpreting moduli spaces of 1-dimensional sheaves as moduli spaces of difference equations. When the moduli space is a single point, the equation is rigid, and we give an integral representation for the solutions. More generally, twisting by line bundles corresponds to isomonodromy deformations, so this gives rise to Lax pairs. When the moduli space is 2-dimensional, one obtains Lax pairs for the elliptic Painlevé equation; this associates a Lax pair to any rational number, of order twice the denominator. There is also an elliptic analogue of the Riemann-Hilbert correspondence: an analytic equivalence between categories of elliptic difference equations, swapping the role of the shift of the equation and the nome of the curve.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20170922-135420800

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Abstract: Given a complex curve C of genus 2, there is a well-known relationship between the moduli space of rank 3 semistable bundles on C and a cubic hypersurface known as the Coble cubic. Some of the aspects of this is known to be related to the geometric invariant theory of the third exterior power of a 9-dimensional complex vector space. We extend this relationship to arbitrary fields and study some of the connections to invariant theory, which will be studied more in-depth in a followup paper.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20170922-135945128

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Abstract: We describe a method, based on the theory of Macdonald-Koornwinder polynomials, for proving bounded Littlewood identities. Our approach provides an alternative to Macdonald's partial fraction technique and results in the first examples of bounded Littlewood identities for Macdonald polynomials. These identities, which take the form of decomposition formulas for Macdonald polynomials of type (R,S) in terms Macdonald polynomials of type A, are q,t-analogues of known branching formulas for characters of the symplectic, orthogonal and special orthogonal groups, important in the theory of plane partitions. As applications of our results we obtain combinatorial formulas for characters of affine Lie algebras, Rogers-Ramanujan identities for such algebras complementing recent results of Griffin et al., and transformation formulas for Kaneko-Macdonald-type hypergeometric series.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20170922-141021522

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Abstract: We study birational morphisms between smooth projective surfaces that respect a given Poisson structure, with particular attention to induced birational maps between the (Poisson) moduli spaces of sheaves on those surfaces. In particular, to any birational morphism, we associate a corresponding "minimal lift" operation on sheaves of homological dimension ≤ 1, and study its properties. In particular, we show that minimal lift induces a stratification of the moduli space of simple sheaves on the codomain by open subspaces of the moduli space of simple sheaves on the domain, compatibly with the induced Poisson structures.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20170922-144027436

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Abstract: By analogy with work of Hitchin on integrable systems, we construct natural relaxations of several kinds of moduli spaces of difference equations, with special attention to a particular class of difference equations on an elliptic curve (arising in the theory of elliptic special functions). The common feature of the relaxations is that they can be identified with moduli spaces of sheaves on rational surfaces. Not only does this make various natural questions become purely geometric (rigid equations correspond to -2-curves), it also establishes a number of nontrivial correspondences between different moduli spaces, since a given moduli space of sheaves is typically the relaxation of infinitely many moduli spaces of equations. In the process of understanding this, we also consider a number of purely geometric questions about rational surfaces with anticanonical curves; e.g., we give an essentially combinatorial algorithm for testing whether a given divisor is the class of a -2-curve or is effective with generically integral representative.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20170922-142713387

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Abstract: In this article we consider the elliptic Selberg integral, which is a BC_n symmetric multivariate extension of the elliptic beta integral. We categorize the limits that are obtained as p → 0, for given behavior of the parameters as p → 0. This article is therefore the multivariate version of our earlier paper "Basic Hypergeometric Functions as Limits of Elliptic Hypergeometric Functions". The integrand of the elliptic Selberg integral is the measure for the BC_n symmetric biorthogonal functions introduced by the second author, so we also consider the limits of the associated bilinear form. We also provide the limits for the discrete version of this bilinear form, which is related to a multivariate extension of the Frenkel-Turaev summation.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20170922-144400917

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Abstract: In this article we extend the results of our article "Limits of elliptic hypergeometric biorthogonal functions" to the multivariate setting. In that article we determined which families of biorthogonal functions arise as limits from the elliptic hypergeometric biorthogonal functions from Spiridonov when p → 0. Here we show that the classification of the possible limits of the BC_n type multivariate biorthogonal functions previously introduced by the second author is identical to the univariate classification. That is, for each univariate limit family there exists a multivariate extension, and in particular we obtain multivariate versions for all elements of the q-Askey scheme. For the Askey-Wilson polynomials these are the Koornwinder polynomials, and the multivariate versions of the Pastro polynomials form a two-parameter family which include the Macdonald polynomials.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20170922-152223616

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Abstract: When one expands a Schur function in terms of the irreducible characters of the symplectic (or orthogonal) group, the coefficient of the trivial character is 0 unless the indexing partition has an appropriate form. A number of q-analogues of this fact were conjectured in [8]; the present paper proves most of those conjectures, as well as some new identities suggested by the proof technique. The proof involves showing that a nonsymmetric version of the relevant integral is annihilated by a suitable ideal of the affine Hecke algebra, and that any such annihilated functional satisfies the desired vanishing property. This does not, however, give rise to vanishing identities for the standard nonsymmetric Macdonald and Koornwinder polynomials; we discuss the required modification to these polynomials to support such results.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20171010-113111196

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Abstract: In recent work (math.QA/0309252) on multivariate hypergeometric integrals, the author generalized a conjectural integral formula of van Diejen and Spiridonov to a ten parameter integral provably invariant under an action of the Weyl group E_7. In the present note, we consider the action of the affine Weyl group, or more precisely, the recurrences satisfied by special cases of the integral. These are of two flavors: linear recurrences that hold only up to dimension 6, and three families of bilinear recurrences that hold in arbitrary dimension, subject to a condition on the parameters. As a corollary, we find that a codimension one special case of the integral is a tau function for the elliptic Painlevé equation.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20171009-142453684

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Abstract: We present an efficient addition circuit, borrowing techniques from the classical carry-lookahead arithmetic circuit. Our quantum carry-lookahead (QCLA) adder accepts two n-bit numbers and adds them in O(log n) depth using O(n) ancillary qubits. We present both in-place and out-of-place versions, as well as versions that add modulo 2^n and modulo 2^n - 1. Previously, the linear-depth ripple-carry addition circuit has been the method of choice. Our work reduces the cost of addition dramatically with only a slight increase in the number of required qubits. The QCLA adder can be used within current modular multiplication circuits to reduce substantially the run-time of Shor's algorithm.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20171010-104601338

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Abstract: Self-dual codes are important because many of the best codes known are of this type and they have a rich mathematical theory. Topics covered in this survey include codes over F_2, F_3, F_4, F_q, Z_4, Z_m, shadow codes, weight enumerators, Gleason-Pierce theorem, invariant theory, Gleason theorems, bounds, mass formulae, enumeration, extremal codes, open problems. There is a comprehensive bibliography.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20171122-102726979

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