Abstract: We reconsider the black hole firewall puzzle, emphasizing that quantum error-correction, computational complexity, and pseudorandomness are crucial concepts for understanding the black hole interior. We assume that the Hawking radiation emitted by an old black hole is pseudorandom, meaning that it cannot be distinguished from a perfectly thermal state by any efficient quantum computation acting on the radiation alone. We then infer the existence of a subspace of the radiation system which we interpret as an encoding of the black hole interior. This encoded interior is entangled with the late outgoing Hawking quanta emitted by the old black hole, and is inaccessible to computationally bounded observers who are outside the black hole. Specifically, efficient operations acting on the radiation, those with quantum computational complexity polynomial in the entropy of the remaining black hole, commute with a complete set of logical operators acting on the encoded interior, up to corrections which are exponentially small in the entropy. Thus, under our pseudorandomness assumption, the black hole interior is well protected from exterior observers as long as the remaining black hole is macroscopic. On the other hand, if the radiation is not pseudorandom, an exterior observer may be able to create a firewall by applying a polynomial-time quantum computation to the radiation.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20220802-839157000

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Abstract: Quantum metrology has many important applications in science and technology, ranging from frequency spectroscopy to gravitational wave detection. Quantum mechanics imposes a fundamental limit on measurement precision, called the Heisenberg limit, which can be achieved for noiseless quantum systems, but is not achievable in general for systems subject to noise. Here we study how measurement precision can be enhanced through quantum error correction, a general method for protecting a quantum system from the damaging effects of noise. We find a necessary and sufficient condition for achieving the Heisenberg limit using quantum probes subject to Markovian noise, assuming that noiseless ancilla systems are available, and that fast, accurate quantum processing can be performed. When the sufficient condition is satisfied, the quantum error-correcting code achieving the best possible precision can be found by solving a semidefinite program. We also show that noiseless ancilla are not needed when the signal Hamiltonian and the error operators commute. Finally we provide two explicit, archetypal examples of quantum sensors: qubits undergoing dephasing and a lossy bosonic mode.

No.: 10934
ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20190606-092443914

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Abstract: Forthcoming exascale digital computers will further advance our knowledge of quantum chromodynamics, but formidable challenges will remain. In particular, Euclidean Monte Carlo methods are not well suited for studying real-time evolution in hadronic collisions, or the properties of hadronic matter at nonzero temperature and chemical potential. Digital computers may never be able to achieve accurate simulations of such phenomena in QCD and other strongly-coupled field theories; quantum computers will do so eventually, though I'm not sure when. Progress toward quantum simulation of quantum field theory will require the collaborative efforts of quantumists and field theorists, and though the physics payoff may still be far away, it's worthwhile to get started now. Today's research can hasten the arrival of a new era in which quantum simulation fuels rapid progress in fundamental physics.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20190122-113145453

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Abstract: Following a suggestion of A. Kitaev, we explore the connection between fault-tolerant quantum computation and nonabelian quantum statistics in two spatial dimensions. A suitably designed spin system can support localized excitations (quasiparticles) that exhibit long-range nonabelian Aharonov-Bohm interactions. Quantum information encoded in the charges of the quasiparticles is highly resistant to decoherence, and can be reliably processed by carrying one quasiparticle around another. If information is encoded in pairs of quasiparticles, then the Aharonov-Bohm interactions can be adequate for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation.

Publication: Lecture Notes in Computer Science No.: 1509 ISSN: 0302-9743

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:20200715-072635515

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Abstract: The discovery of quantum error correction has greatly improved the long-term prospects for quantum computing technology. Encoded quantum information can be protected from errors that arise due to uncontrolled interactions with the environment, or due to imperfect implementations of quantum logical operations. Recovery from errors can work effectively even if occasional mistakes occur during the recovery procedure. Furthermore, encoded quantum information can be processed without serious propagation of errors. In principle, an arbitrarily long quantum computation can be performed reliably, provided that the average probability of error per quantum gate is less than a certain critical value, the accuracy threshold. It may be possible to incorporate intrinsic fault tolerance into the design of quantum computing hardware, perhaps by invoking topological Aharonov-Bohm interactions to process quantum information.

ID: CaltechAUTHORS:PREiqci98

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