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A Caltech Library Repository Feedhttp://www.rssboard.org/rss-specificationpython-feedgenenMon, 27 Nov 2023 19:39:27 +0000Topics in Core-Collapse Supernova Theory: The Formation of Black Holes and the Transport of Neutrinos
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:06012012-103948541
Authors: O'Connor, Evan Patrick
Year: 2012
DOI: 10.7907/RAAR-4C77
<p>Core-Collapse Supernovae are one of the most complex astrophysical systems in the universe. They deeply entwine aspects of physics and astrophysics that are rarely side by side in nature. To accurately model core-collapse supernovae one must self-consistently combine general relativity, nuclear physics, neutrino physics, and magneto-hydrodynamics in a symmetry-free computational environment. This is a challenging task, as each one of these aspects on its own is an area of great study. We take an open approach in an effort to encourage collaboration in the core-collapse supernovae community.</p>
<p>In this thesis, we develop a new open-source general-relativistic spherically-symmetric Eulerian hydrodynamics code for studying stellar collapse, protoneutron star formation, and evolution until black hole formation. GR1D includes support for finite temperature equations of state and an efficient and qualitatively accurate treatment of neutrino leakage. GR1D implements spherically-symmetric rotation, allowing for the study of slowly rotating stellar collapse. GR1D is available at http://www.stellarcollapse.org</p>
<p> We use GR1D to perform an extensive study of black hole formation in failing core-collapse supernovae. Over 100 presupernova models from various sources are used in over 700 total simulations. We systematically explore the dependence of black hole formation on the input physics: initial zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass and metallicity, nuclear equation of state, rotation, and stellar mass loss rates. Assuming the core-collapse supernova mechanism fails and a black hole forms, we find that the outcome, for a given equation of state, can be estimated, to first order, by a single parameter, the compactness of the stellar core at bounce. By comparing the protoneutron star structure at the onset of gravitational instability with solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkof equations, we find that thermal pressure support in the outer protoneutron star core is responsible for raising the maximum protoneutron star mass by up to 25% above the cold neutron star value. By artificially increasing neutrino heating, we find the critical neutrino heating efficiency required for exploding a given progenitor structure and connect these findings with ZAMS conditions. This establishes, albeit approximately, for the first time based on actual collapse simulations, the mapping between ZAMS parameters and the outcome of core collapse. </p>
<p>We also use GR1D to study proposed progenitors of long-duration gamma-ray bursts. We find that many of the proposed progenitors have core structures similar to garden-variety core-collapse supernovae. These are not expected to form black holes, a key ingredient of the collapsar model of long-duration gamma-ray bursts. The small fraction of proposed progenitors that are compact enough to form black holes have fast rotating iron cores, making them prone to a magneto-rotational explosion and the formation of a protomagnetar rather than a black hole.</p>
<p>Finally, we present preliminary work on a fully general-relativistic neutrino transport code and neutrino-interaction library. Following along with the trends explored in our black hole formation study, we look at the dependence of the neutrino observables on the bounce compactness. We find clear relationships that will allow us to extract details of the core structure from the next galactic supernova. Following the open approach of GR1D, the neutrino transport code will be made open-source upon completion. The open-source neutrino-interaction library, NuLib, is already available at http://www.nulib.org.</p>https://thesis.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/7118Where Tori Fear to Trend: Hypermassive Neutron Star Remnants and Absolute Event Horizons or Topics in Computational General Relativity
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:07122013-120734335
Authors: Kaplan, Jeffrey Daniel
Year: 2014
DOI: 10.7907/WAB5-8460
Computational general relativity is a field of study which has reached maturity only within the last decade. This thesis details several studies that elucidate phenomena related to the coalescence of compact object binaries. Chapters 2 and 3 recounts work towards developing new analytical tools for visualizing and reasoning about dynamics in strongly curved spacetimes. In both studies, the results employ analogies with the classical theory of electricity and magnitism, first (Ch. 2) in the post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity and then (Ch. 3) in full general relativity though in the absence of matter sources. In Chapter 4, we examine the topological structure of absolute event horizons during binary black hole merger simulations conducted with the SpEC code. Chapter 6 reports on the progress of the SpEC code in simulating the coalescence of neutron star-neutron star binaries, while Chapter 7 tests the effects of various numerical gauge conditions on the robustness of black hole formation from stellar collapse in SpEC. In Chapter 5, we examine the nature of pseudospectral expansions of non-smooth functions motivated by the need to simulate the stellar surface in Chapters 6 and 7. In Chapter 8, we study how thermal effects in the nuclear equation of state effect the equilibria and stability of hypermassive neutron stars. Chapter 9 presents supplements to the work in Chapter 8, including an examination of the stability question raised in Chapter 8 in greater mathematical detail.
https://thesis.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/7912Gauge Invariant Spectral Cauchy Characteristic Extraction of Gravitational Waves in Computational General Relativity
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:05282015-131606315
Authors: Handmer, Casey John
Year: 2015
DOI: 10.7907/Z9NP22DZ
<p>We present a complete system for Spectral Cauchy characteristic extraction (Spectral CCE). Implemented in C++ within the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC), the method employs numerous innovative algorithms to efficiently calculate the Bondi strain, news, and flux.</p>
<p>Spectral CCE was envisioned to ensure physically accurate gravitational wave-forms computed for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (LIGO) and similar experiments, while working toward a template bank with more than a thousand waveforms to span the binary black hole (BBH) problem’s seven-dimensional parameter space.</p>
<p>The Bondi strain, news, and flux are physical quantities central to efforts to understand and detect astrophysical gravitational wave sources within the Simulations of eXtreme Spacetime (SXS) collaboration, with the ultimate aim of providing the first strong field probe of the Einstein field equation.</p>
<p>In a series of included papers, we demonstrate stability, convergence, and gauge invariance. We also demonstrate agreement between Spectral CCE and the legacy Pitt null code, while achieving a factor of 200 improvement in computational efficiency.</p>
<p>Spectral CCE represents a significant computational advance. It is the foundation upon which further capability will be built, specifically enabling the complete calculation of junk-free, gauge-free, and physically valid waveform data on the fly within SpEC.</p>https://thesis.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/8897Surrogate Models of Gravitational Waves from Numerical Relativity Simulations of Binary Black Hole Mergers
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:05242017-103834785
Authors: Blackman, Jonathan Lloyd
Year: 2017
DOI: 10.7907/Z93F4MPJ
<p>The advanced LIGO detectors have made multiple detections of gravitational waves from the mergers of binary black hole systems, bringing us into the era of gravitational wave astronomy. From such gravitational wave detections, we can put constraints on deviations from general relativity (GR), as well as measure the masses and spins of the black holes involved in the mergers. Such measurements require knowledge of the gravitational waveforms predicted by GR for all relevant masses and spins. Numerical relativity (NR) simulations are now sufficiently robust that we can accurately simulate binary black hole mergers and obtain the waveform for all but the most extreme parameters, but they are too computationally expensive for a dense coverage of the parameter space. NR surrogate models rapidly and accurately interpolate the waveforms from a set of NR simulations over a subset of parameter space. Using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC), we have built several NR surrogate models for various subsets of the parameter space, culminating in a model which includes all 7 intrinsic parameter dimensions. The surrogate model waveforms are nearly as accurate as NR waveforms, and can be evaluated in milliseconds whereas a single NR simulation can take weeks.</p>https://thesis.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/10197r-Process Nucleosynthesis in Neutron Star Mergers with the New Nuclear Reaction Network SkyNet
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:06072017-212011532
Authors: Lippuner, Jonas
Year: 2018
DOI: 10.7907/Z9V40SCS
At the Big Bang, only the lightest elements, mainly hydrogen and helium, were produced. Stars synthesize heavier elements, such as helium, carbon, and oxygen, from lighter ones through nuclear fusion. Iron-group elements are created in supernovae (both type Ia and core-collapse). It has been known for 60 years that the slow and rapid neutron capture processes (s- and r-process) are each responsible for creating about half of the elements beyond the iron group. The s-process is known to occur in asymptotic giant branch stars, but the astrophysical site of the r-process is still a mystery. Based on observations of heavy elements in old stars, it was theorized that r-process nucleosynthesis takes place in core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe). However, recent CCSN simulations indicate that the conditions required for the r-process are not obtained in CCSN. The focus has thus shifted to neutron star mergers (both binary neutron star and black hole-neutron star mergers), where the r-process easily synthesizes all the known heavy elements. Neutron star mergers are expected to be detected by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) in the near future, which should either confirm or rule out their proposed association with radioactively powered transients called kilonovae or macronovae that are the observational signatures of r-process nucleosynthesis. To understand how the r-process operates in different astrophysical scenarios and what relative abundance patterns it produces, detailed nuclear reaction network calculations are needed that track thousands of isotopes and tens of thousands of nuclear reactions. In this thesis, I present SkyNet, a new general-purpose nuclear reaction network that can evolve an arbitrary list of nuclear species with an arbitrary set of nuclear reactions. I describe in detail the different physics that is implemented in SkyNet and I perform code tests and comparisons to other nuclear reaction networks. Then I use SkyNet to systematically investigate r-process nucleosynthesis as a function of the initial electron fraction, initial entropy, and expansion timescale of the fluid. Further, I present r-process nucleosynthesis calculations with SkyNet in the dynamical ejecta of a black hole–neutron star merger with varying levels of neutrino irradiation. Finally, I study the r-process in the outflow of a neutron star merger remnant disk as a function of the lifetime of the central hypermassive neutron star (HMNS). SkyNet is easy to use and flexible and it is publicly available as open-source software. Multiple researchers are already using SkyNet for their work, and I hope that SkyNet will be a useful tool for the broader nuclear astrophysics community.https://thesis.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/10312Neutrino Radiation Transport and Other Topics in High Energy Density Astrophysics
https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechTHESIS:07212017-001528247
Authors: Richers, Sherwood Andrew, III
Year: 2018
DOI: 10.7907/Z9PC30JH
<p>Neutron star mergers and the collapse of massive stars result in some of the universe’s most violet explosions. However, the detailed mechanisms behind all of these astrophysical explosions remain elusive. Their strongly nonlinear and complicated nature makes them difficult and expensive to simulate, and the properties of matter in these extreme conditions are poorly constrained. I use a variety of computational tools to understand the detailed mechanisms behind both types of events.</p>
<p>I describe my relativistic time-independent multidimensional Monte Carlo neutrino radiation transport code Sedonu that provides an accurate account of the neutrino radiation fields and the interaction with neutrinos and background fluid. Though Sedonu calculations are time-independent, I demonstrate their utility in dynamical general relativistic variable Eddington tensor radiation hydrodynamics simulations.</p>
<p>I apply Sedonu to simulations of accretion disks following neutron star mergers to demonstrate that more realistic disk cooling and neutrino-driven mass ejection rates are larger than is predicted using approximate transport methods. I also reinforce that neutrino pair annihilation from these disk configurations is unlikely to be able to energize a gamma-ray burst jet.</p>
<p>I subject Sedonu to the first thorough comparison of Boltzmann neutrino radiation transport methods in multiple spatial dimensions in the context of core-collapse supernovae. The comparisons with the other highly accurate discrete ordinates-based transport scheme show remarkably similar results, verifying the accuracy of both methods and underscoring the importance of numerical fidelity.</p>
<p>I perform the first broad parameter study on how different descriptions of dense nuclear matter and star rotation rates influence the dynamics of, and hence gravitational waves from, the bounce and early post-bounce phase of rapidly rotating core collapse supernovae. Using the results of 1824 two-dimensional general relativistic core-collapse simulations, I demonstrate that the equation of state is unlikely to be constrained by LIGO observations. I show that the effect of the equation of state on the gravitational wave frequency can be described by a single universal relation.</p>
<p>Finally, I use results of three-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of rapidly rotating core collapse to demonstrate that the polar magnetic structures that form are destroyed by a magnetohydrodynamic kink instability.</p>https://thesis.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/10347