@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/20888,
title ="Some Influences of Noise on Combustion Instabilities and Combustor Dynamics",
author = "Seywert, C. and Culick, F. E. C.",
month = "October",
year = "1999",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20101118-105039121",
note = "© 1999, Jannaf. This work was supported partly by the California Institute of Technology; partly\nby the Caltech Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative under ONR Grant No. N00014-95-1-1338\n(Dr. Judah Goldwasser, Program Manager); partly by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (Dr. Mitat\nBirkan, Program Manager); partly by ENEL (Dr. Giancarlo Benelli, Program Manager); and partly by the\nDepartment of Energy Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) Program under Subcontract No.\n98-02-SR072 (Dr. Larry Golan, Program Manager).",
revision_no = "16",
abstract = "The chief purpose of this paper is to investigate the influences of noise, more generally stochastic\nsources of any sort, on linear and nonlinear unsteady motions in combustion chambers. To be definite,\nour primary applications here relate to combustion instabilities in solid propellant rockets, particularly\nlinear stability. Two aspects are especially relevant to practical applications: the direct effects of noise on\nstability; and extraction of information about stability margin from noisy pressure records taken for stable\nmotors. However, the formulation and results are relevant to combustors generally. A fundamental issue\nis the distinction between and relative importance of self-excited (linearly unstable) oscillations on the one\nhand and forced oscillation on the other. This has been a controversial and occasionally misunderstood\ntopic for many years. The essential ideas can be clarified unambiguously within the context of global\ndynamics treated here. We are not so concerned with the details of data processing as with the physical\ninterpretation of the results.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21914,
title ="Numerical study of acoustic oscillations and combustion instabilities in solid propellant rocket",
author = "Roh, T. S. and Culick, F. E. C.",
volume = "2",
number = "662",
pages = "141-151",
month = "October",
year = "1997",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110128-075156436",
note = "© 1997. This work has been partially supported by the Caltech Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative\nunder ONR Grant No. N00014-95-1-1338; Dr. Richard S. Miller of the Office of Naval Research is Program Manager. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. ",
revision_no = "21",
abstract = "A numerical analysis of unsteady motions in solid rocket motors has been conducted. A fully coupled\nimplicit scheme based on a dual time-stepping integration algorithm has been adopted to solve the governing\nequations and associated boundary conditions. A narrow pressure pulse is imposed at the head end to\nsimulate unsteady acoustic oscillations in the combustion chamber. Pressure increases when the front of the\npulse reaches near the nozzle area. Self-generated oscillations with frequency of standing wave propagates\nupstream in the combustion chamber. Investigation of transient response of gas-phase dynamics to traveling\npressure wave and its effects on propellant combustion reveals several aspects: Combustion responses have\na strong relationship with vorticity fluctuations in case of high turbulent intensity on the propellant surface.\nTemperature fluctuations of the propellant surface in the head end region seem to be very unstable and\nindependent of the pressure wave. Surface temperature without turbulence effect looks more sensitive to\ntemperature fluctuations in the primary flame zone. Stability of surface temperature is strongly related to\nturbulent intensity on the propellant surface.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/20919,
title ="Applications of Various Methods of Analysis to Combustion Instabilities in Solid Propellant Rockets",
author = "Culick, F. E. C. and Roh, T. S.",
volume = "2",
pages = "215-230",
month = "November",
year = "1996",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20101119-113430324",
note = "© 1996, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. This work was partly sponsored by the California Institute of Technology and partly by the\nCaltech Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative under ONR Grant No. N00014-95-1-1338. Dr. Richard S. Miller of the Office of Naval Research is Program Manager.",
revision_no = "22",
abstract = "Instabilities of motions in a combustion chamber are consequences of the coupled dynamics of\ncombustion processes and of the flow in the chamber. The extreme complexities of the problem\nalways require approximations of various sorts to make progress in understanding the\nmechanisms and behavior of combustion instabilities. This paper covers recent progress in the\nsubject, mainly summarizing efforts in two areas: approximate analysis based on a form of\nGalerkin's method, particularly useful for understanding the global linear and nonlinear\ndynamics of combustion instabilities and numerical simulations intended to accommodate as\nfully as possible fundamental chemical processes in both the condensed and gaseous phases.\nOne purpose of current work is to bring closer together these approaches to produce more\ncomprehensive and detailed realistic results applicable to the interpretation of observations\nand for design of new rockets for both space and military applications. Particularly important\nare the goals of determining the connections between chemical composition and instabilities;\nand the influences of geometry on nonlinear behavior.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/22069,
title ="An experimental and numerical investigation of premixed combustion in a vortex in a laboratory dump combustor",
author = "Kendrick, D. W. and Zsak, T. W.",
volume = "306",
pages = "33-69",
month = "January",
year = "1996",
isbn = "978-0-7923-3888-8",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110208-095101547",
note = "© 1996 Kluwer Publishers. This research was funded by the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Grant No. 89-0413, supervised by Dr. Julian Tishkoff. Thanks should also be given to F. E. Marble for his helpful suggestions.",
revision_no = "16",
abstract = "A one dimensional acoustic model was used to predict the resonant modes of the Caltech pulsed combustion facility. The model accurately predicted pressure FFTs found through experiments for the 2.5 and 7.6 cm duct height configurations. Heat addition locations were found to have only marginal effects on shifting the location of the facility's acoustic modes. A detailed experimental analysis of the\nreacting vortex structures shed from a rearward facing step was also performed using high speed\nshadowgraph and CCD cinematography. Premixed vortical combustion was found to have two ignition\nmechanisms depending on the prior status within the combustor. In the first, burning was initiated at the\nsurface and proceeded toward the center while in the second ignition was initiated near the center and the\nflame propagated outward. Time delays measured from the start of vortex shedding to subsequent ignition\nor to the corresponding maximum burning intensity were found to vary inversely with combustor pressure\nduring injection (shedding) and with combustor pressure during burning. Reducing the height of the\ncombustor increased interactions between the burning vortex and the wall, inhibited vortex growth, and\nproduced longer axial burning regions and higher overall straining throughout the structure's cycle.\nVortex straining was defined in two ways: first, based on the growth rate of the core diameter of the\nstructure and second, based on the effective length of the streamline separating hot combustion products\nand cold reactants. Straining provided a sufficient delay mechanism to shift vortex shedding from 237 to\n188 Hz for the 5.1 cm case.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21916,
title ="Combustion instabilities in propulsion systems",
author = "Culick, F. E. C.",
volume = "306",
pages = "173-241",
month = "January",
year = "1996",
isbn = "978-0-7923-3888-8",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110128-112158907",
note = "© 1996 Kluwer Academic Publishers. ",
revision_no = "14",
abstract = "The purpose of this paper is to give a broad overview of the field of combustion instabilities in propulsion systems. Virtually all of the material included here has appeared elsewhere, either in primary research reports or in reviews. None of the propulsion systems are covered in great detail, but sufficiently to establish the fundamental point that while there are obvious practical\ndifferences among the systems, for understanding and treating combustion instabilities, much is to be gained by treating the various phenomena within a common framework. In that context, the systems are distinguished chiefly by geometry and the kinds of propellants used. On that basis, a general framework can be constructed to serve both practical and theoretical purposes.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/20928,
title ="Overview of Combustion Instabilities in Liquid-Propellant Rocket Engines",
author = "Culick, Fred E. C. and Yang, Vigor",
number = "169",
pages = "3-37",
month = "January",
year = "1995",
isbn = "978-1-60086-418-6",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20101122-074028101",
note = "© 1995 by F. E. C. Culick and V. Yang. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. The authors are indebted to Josef M. Wicker for many helpful discussions of feedback loop of combustion instability.",
revision_no = "17",
abstract = "N/A",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/20911,
title ="Properties of fire plumes",
author = "Zukoski, E. E.",
pages = "101-219",
month = "January",
year = "1995",
isbn = "0121942309",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20101119-084519588",
note = "© 1995 Academic Press Ltd. ",
revision_no = "13",
abstract = "N/A",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21004,
title ="Mass Flux In Fire Plumes\n",
author = "Zukoski, E. E.",
volume = "4",
pages = "137-147",
month = "June",
year = "1994",
isbn = "1-886279-00-4",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20101123-144201485",
note = "© 1994, International Association for Fire Safety Science. This work was supported in part by a grant from the Building and Fire Research Institute, and the National Institute of Science and Technology under the guidance of Dr. L. Cooper.",
revision_no = "12",
abstract = "A review is given of data that describe the mass flux of gas in large buoyant diffusion flames, with the aim of developing a rational picture for this process as well as a correlation of the data. A brief review of flame-height scaling parameters is followed by a discussion of measurement techniques, the previous work on far-field and fire-plume models, and a description of an effort to develop a rational entrainment model.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21851,
title ="Combustion noise and combustion instabilities in propulsion systems\n",
author = "Culick, F. E. C. and Paparizos, L.",
number = "512",
pages = "18-1",
month = "April",
year = "1992",
isbn = "9789283506676",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110121-134650696",
note = "© 1992, AGARD. This work has been supported partly by the\nCalifornia Institute of Technology; by the Office of\nNaval Research; by the Air Force Office of Scientific\nResearch; and by the National Aeronautics and\nSpace Administration.",
revision_no = "15",
abstract = "This paper is concerned with some aspects of non-linear behavior of unsteady motions in combustion chambers. The emphasis is on conditions under which organized oscillations having discrete frequencies may exist in the presence of random motions. In order to treat the two types of motions together, and particularly to investigate coupling between noise and combustion instabilities, the unsteady field is represented as a synthesis of acoustic modes having time-varying amplitudes. Each of the amplitudes are written as the sum of two parts, one associated with the random field and the remainder representing the organized oscillations. After spatial averaging, the general problem is reduced to solution of a set of second-order ordinary differential equations whose structure depends on the sorts of nonlinear processes accounted for. This formulation accommodates any physical process; in particular, terms are included to represent noise sources, although only limited modeling is discussed. Our results suggest that random sources of noise have only small effects on combustion instabilities and seem not to be a cause of unstable motions. However, the coupling between the two sorts of unsteady motions may be important as an essential process in a proposed scheme for noise control. It is now a familiar observation that many nonlinear deterministic systems are capable of exhibiting apparently random motions called 'chaos.' This is a particularly interesting possibility for systems which also executed non-deterministic random motions. In combustion chambers, a nonlinear deterministic system (acoustical motions) exists in the presence of noise produced by flow separation, turbulent motions, and energy released by combustion processes. The last part of the paper is directed to the matter of discovering whether or not chaotic motions exist in combustion systems. Analysis has not progressed sufficiently far to answer the question. We report here recent results of processing data taken in one combustor to determine the dimensions of any attractors in the motions. No evidence has been found for chaos in the strict sense, but the method seems to be an important means of investigating the nonlinear behavior of combustion systems. ",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21891,
title ="Prediction of the stability of unsteady motions in solid-propellant rocket motors",
author = "Culick, F. E. C. and Yang, V.",
number = "143",
pages = "719-779",
month = "January",
year = "1992",
isbn = "978-1-56347-014-1",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110125-152359532",
note = "© 1990 by F. E. C. Culick and V. Yang. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc., with permission. The authors are indebted to S. I. Kim and M. Fuchs for their help in completing some of the calculations and to J. N. Levine for providing the\nnumerical code for the nonlinear combustion instability study. This work was partly supported by the California Institute of Technology and Pennsylvania State University.",
revision_no = "18",
abstract = "N/A",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21050,
title ="Modeling for Active Control of Combustion and Thermally Driven Oscillations",
author = "Culick, F. E. C. and Lin, W. H.",
pages = "2939-2948",
month = "June",
year = "1991",
isbn = "0-87942-565-2",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20101130-075321569",
note = "© 1991, IEEE. Date of Current Version :10 March 2009. \nThis work was partially supported by the Office of Naval\nResearch, Contract N00014-89-J-1753, the Air Force Office of\nScientific Research, Grant No. 90-0188 and by Caltech funds.",
revision_no = "14",
abstract = "Organized oscillations excited and sustained by high densities of energy release in combustion chambers have long caused serious problems in development of propulsion systems. The amplitudes often become sufficiently large to cause unacceptable structural vibrations. Because the oscillations are self-excited, they reach limiting amplitudes (limit cycles) only because of the action of nonlinear processes. Traditionally, satisfactory behavior\nhas been achieved through a combination of trial-and-error\ndesign and testing, with control always involving passive means: geometrical modifications, changes of propellant composition, or devices to enhance dissipation of acoustic energy. Active control has been applied only to small-scale laboratory devices, but the limited success suggests the possibility of serious applications to full-scale propulsion systems. Realization of that potential rests on further experimental work, combined with deeper understanding of the mechanisms causing the oscillations and of the physical behavior of the systems. Effective design of active control systems will require faithful modeling of the relevant processes over broad frequency ranges covering the spectra of natural modes. This paper will cover the general character of the linear and nonlinear behavior of combustion systems, with special attention to acoustics and the mechanisms of excitation.\nThe discussion is intended to supplement the paper by Doyle et al. concerned primarily with controls issues and the observed behavior of simple laboratory devices.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21052,
title ="Characteristics Of Large Diffusion Flames Burning In A Vitiated Atmosphere\n",
author = "Morehart, J. H. and Zukoski, E. E.",
volume = "3",
pages = "575-583",
month = "January",
year = "1991",
isbn = "1-85166-719-9",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20101130-083327723",
note = "© 1991, International Association for Fire Safety Science. \n",
revision_no = "16",
abstract = "Experiments concerning properties of large diffusion flames burning steadily in a vitiated atmosphere under conditions similar to those which may arise in a room fire are described. The effects of vitiation on the products of combustion and flame lengths, and the extinction limits are described for natural gas and ethylene diffusion flames stabilized on 8.9-, 19- and 50-cm pool-type burners. As vitiation was increased and the flame extinction limit was approached, the flame length increased slightly. Close to the limit, radiation from soot in the flame became imperceptible, leaving only a weakly luminous blue flame. Even with significant reductions in both the flame height and luminosity near the limit conditions, the hydrocarbon fuels were completely oxidized in the flame to water and carbon dioxide and no measurable concentrations of products of incomplete combustion were produced. A. comparison of limiting oxygen concentrations and limiting flame temperatures for these experiments with the results of other investigations shows reasonably good agreement despite widely varying experimental techniques. These results are contrasted with those obtained in the unsteady situation which arises when a large buoyant diffusion flame burns in an enclosed space such that the upper part of the flame is in a strongly vitiated layer composed of a mixture of air and products of combustion, and the lower part in fresh air. \n",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21902,
title ="Combustion Instabilities and Rayleigh's Criterion",
author = "Culick, F. E. C.",
pages = "135-151",
month = "January",
year = "1991",
isbn = "0-387-97417-2",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110127-073132186",
note = "© 1991 Springer-Verlag.",
revision_no = "17",
abstract = "In 1878, Lord Rayleigh formulated his criterion to explain several \nexamples of acoustic waves excited and maintained by heat addition. It is a\nqualitative explanation successfully capturing the essence of the phenomena\nbut not providing a basis for quantitative predictions. The widespread appeal\nof Rayleigh's criterion merits placing this important result on a more rigorous\nbasis. To do so requires careful formulation grounded in the theory of small\namplitude motions in a compressible fluid. In this chapter, we review the\nconstruction of an approximate analysis and establish the equivalence of\nRayleigh's criterion and the condition for linear stability of small amplitude\nmotions. Thus Rayleigh's criterion is formulated explicitly in the context of\nan analysis applicable to any combustion chamber. Some results are discussed\nfor both linear and nonlinear motions. Recent experimental results discussed\nby others suggest that the criterion may offer a practical means for investigating\nthe causes of instabilities in propulsion systems.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21188,
title ="Fluid Dynamic Aspects Of Room Fires\n",
author = "Zukoski, E. E.",
journal = "Fire Safety Science",
volume = "1",
pages = "1-30",
month = "January",
year = "1986",
isbn = "0891164561",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20101206-115227793",
note = "© 1986, International Association for Fire Safety Science. 1985 Howard W Emmons Invited Lecture. \n\n\"Prof. T. Kubota presented the 1985 Howard W. Emmons Invited Lecture dUE\nto Prof. E. E. Zukoski's, hopefully short, illness.\" - Preface",
revision_no = "14",
abstract = "Several fluid dynamic processes which play important roles in the development of accidental fires in structures are discussed. They include a review of information concerning the characteristic flow regimes of fire plumes and the properties of the flow in these regimes, and a brief review of flow through openings and in ceiling jets. Factors which lead to the development of thermal stratification in ceiling layers are also discussed.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21217,
title ="Aerodynamics, Stability and Control of the 1903 Wright Flyer",
author = "Culick, Fred E. C. and Jex, Henry R.",
number = "WF 84/09-1",
month = "September",
year = "1985",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20101207-140100221",
note = "September 20, 1984. Systems Technology, Inc., Paper No. 359.\nWe thank Mrs. C. Yehle of Caltech for typing the\nmanuscript through many drafts, and Mr. C. Reaber for the great care with which he prepared the figures.\n\nTo be published in \"Proceedings of the Symposium on the 80th Anniversary\nof the Wright Brothers First Flight\", Smithsonian Institution;\nDec. 16, 1983. Copyright reserved.\n\nThis draft version is for limited review and distribution. Permission\nto republish any portion must be obtained from the Smithsonian\n(Mr. Wolko); however the right to reference this paper in technical\nreports is hereby granted.",
revision_no = "14",
abstract = "The Los Angeles Chapter of the American Institute of Aero and\nAstronautics is building two replicas of the 1903 Wright Flyer airplane;\none to wind-tunnel test and display, and a modified one to fly. As part\nof this project the aerodynamic characteristics of the Flyer are being\nanalyzed by modern wind-tunnel and analytical techniques. Tnis paper\ndescribes the Wright Flyer Project, and compares key results from\nsmall-scale wind-tunnel tests and from vortex-lattice computations for\nthis multi-biplane canard configuration. Analyses of the stability and\ncontrol properties are summarized and their implications for closed-loop\ncontrol by a pilot are derived using quasilinear pilot-vehicle analysis\nand illustrated by simulation time histories.\nIt is concluded that, although the Wrights were very knowledgeable\nand ingenious with respect to aircraft controls and their interactions\n(e.g., the good effects of their wing-warp-to-rudder linkage are\nvalidated), they were largely ignorant of dynamic stability\nconsiderations. The paper shows that the 1903 Flyer was readily\ncontrollable about all axes but was intrinsically unstable in pitch and\nroll, and it could barely be stabilized by a skilled pilot.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21207,
title ="Growth of a Diffusion Flame in the Field of a Vortex",
author = "Marble, F. E.",
pages = "395-413",
month = "January",
year = "1985",
isbn = "0306410796",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20101207-085326836",
note = "© 1985, New York, Plenum Press. This work was supported, in part, by grant AFOSR-80-0265 and by NASA grant NAG 3-70.",
revision_no = "14",
abstract = "A simple diffusion flame with fast chemical kinetics is\ninitiated along the horizontal axis between a fuel occupying the upper half-plane and an oxidizer below. Simultaneously a vortex of circulation T is established at the origin. As time progresses the flame is extended and \"wound up\" by the vortex flow field and the viscous core\nof the vortex spreads, converting the motion in the core to a solid-body rotation. The kinematics of the flame extension and distortion is described and the effect of the local-flow field upon local-flame structure is analyzed in detail. It is shown that the combustion field consists of a\ntotally reacted core region, whose radius is time dependent, and an external flame region consisting of a pair of spiral arms extending off at large radii toward their original positions on the horizontal axis. The growth of the reacted core, and the reactant-consumption rate augmentation by the vortex field in both core and outer-flame regions were determined for values of the Reynolds number (T/2πv) between 1 and 10^3 and for a wide range of Schmidt numbers (v / D) covering both gas and liquid reactions. For large values of Reynolds number the radius r _* of the reactant grows much more rapidly than the viscous core so that only the nearly inviscid portion of the flow is involved. The more accurate condition for this behavior is that R(Sc)^(1/2)>50 and, under this restriction, the\nsimilarity rule for the core radius growth is shown to be r _*(T^(2/3)D^(1/3)t)^(1/2)=0.5092+O(D/T)^(1/2) In this case also the reactant consumption rate becomes independent of\ntime and, for the complete diffusion flame in the vortex field, the augmentation of reactant-consumption rate due to the vortex field satisfies Augmented consumption rate == 1. 2327 ,-1.4527(D/T)^(1/6) + O(D/T)^(1/2) T^(2/3) D^(1/3) Both of these similarity rules are, as is appropriate for high Reynolds number, independent of kinematic viscosity.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21303,
title ="Afterburners",
author = "Zukoski, E. E.",
pages = "45-144",
month = "January",
year = "1978",
isbn = "978-1-60086-005-8",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20101210-141234875",
note = "© 1985 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. ",
revision_no = "18",
abstract = "N/A",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21445,
title ="Analytical and experimental studies of thermionically emitting electrodes in contact with dense, seeded plasmas",
author = "Koester, John K. and Sajben, Miklos",
pages = "54-60",
month = "January",
year = "1970",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20101220-133221838",
note = "© 1970. Supported in part by the U. S. Air Force Office of\nScientific Research under Contract AF 49(638)-1285.",
revision_no = "15",
abstract = "Interactions are considered between a moving,\nalkali-metal seeded, dense plasma and a\nmetallic electrode whose surface properties are\ninfluenced by the absorption of seed particles. The\nplasma behavior is governed by a set of differential\nequations, which are coupled to the surface\nthrough the boundary conditions. These conditions\nare obtained by utilizing the particle desorption\nrate expressions of Levine and Gyftopoulos. The\nsolution of the problem yields the state of the surface\nas well as the spatial distribution of plasma\nproperties. In particular, electrode voltage drops\nare predicted, which indicate whether the electrode\noperates in a thermionic or arc mode. The\nmethod has been applied to a potassiwn-seeded\nargon plasma in contact with a tungsten electrode\nin a stagnation flow geometry. The results show\nthat the plasma - surface interaction may lead to\nlarge electrode currents at moderate voltage drops.\nThese currents can be up to an order of magnitude\ngreater than what the random electron current\nwould be at the surface under conditions of\nperfect thermodynamic equilibrium at the surface\ntemperature. R.esults of a comparable experiment\nshow reasonably good agreement with the theory.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/22079,
title ="Disintegration of a liquid sheet due to gravity force",
author = "Puzyrewski, R. and Zukoski, E. E.",
volume = "4",
pages = "619-633",
month = "January",
year = "1969",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110208-113026851",
note = "© 1969. Institute of Fundamental Technical Research Conference publication: English, 1st ed. The authors wish to thank Dr. W. D. Rannie and Dr. F. E. Marble for entering discussions and making suggestions during this work. ",
revision_no = "16",
abstract = "An experimental study was made of the disintegration of a liquid sheet due to gravity force. The influence of surface tension, viscosity, and density of liquids on the phenomenon\nof disintegration was found. Conditions of liquid sheet breaking into streams, as well as the frequency of appearance of streams and the mean diameter of droplets\nindependent of properties of the liquid, were found experimentally.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21908,
title ="Similarity parameters for radiative energy transfer in isothermal and non-isothermal gas mixtures",
author = "Penner, S. S. and Thomas, M.",
pages = "279-305",
month = "January",
year = "1964",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110127-120321921",
note = "© 1962, NTIS. Supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under Contract AF49(638)-984",
revision_no = "18",
abstract = "The similarity groups for multicomponent, reacting gas mixtures with radiative\nenergy transport are derived (Section I). The resulting relations are used to consider\nthe feasibility if scaling for flow processes with radiative energy transport under\nhighly simplified conditions (Sections 2 and 3). Next the scaling parameters are\nderived for radiant energy emission from isobaric and isothermal gases for\narbitrary opacities and various spectral line and molecular band models (Section 4).\nScaling parameters for radiant energy emission from isobaric but non-isothermal\nsystems are discussed for arbitrary opacities and various spectral line and molecular\nband models under the restrictions imposed on the allowed temperature profiles for\ndispersion and Doppler lines by the Eddington-Barbier approximation (Section 5).\nFinally, we consider the radiative scaling properties for representative\ntemperature profiles for both collision-broadened and Doppler-broadened line\nprofiles on the basis if exact numerical calculations that we have performed for a\nrotational spectral line belonging to a molecular vibration-rotation band. (Section\n6). It appears that simple scaling rules generally constitute a fair approximation\nfor dispersion lines in non-isothermal systems but that corresponding relations\napply to lines with Doppler contour only in the transparent gas regime.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/22071,
title ="Dynamics of a gas containing small solid particles",
author = "Marble, Frank E.",
pages = "175-213",
month = "January",
year = "1963",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110208-103139308",
note = "© 1963 Pergamon Press.",
revision_no = "14",
abstract = "N/A",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/22000,
title ="Recent studies on quantitative spectroscopy and gas emissivities",
author = "Penner, S. S. and Olfe, D. B.",
pages = "117-137",
month = "January",
year = "1963",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110204-080105852",
note = "© 1963, Pergamon Press. The work described in this report has been supported, in part, by the Office of Naval\nResearch, U.S. Navy, under Contract Nonr-220(03), NR 015401 and, in part, by the Office\nof Scientific Research, U.S. Air Force, under Contract AF 18(603)-2. This paper has been\nprepared for presentation at an ASME Heat Transfer Symposium in New York City,\nNovember 1960.",
revision_no = "12",
abstract = "Representative theoretical and experimental studies relating to the determination of gaseous radiation from isothermal systems are discussed. The following recently concluded studies are described: f-number measurements for OH behind shock fronts; a method for the direct determination of radiative and collisional life times of vibrationally excited, molecules; emissivity calculations for CO_2; emissivity calculations for a hydrogen plasma\nat temperatures up to about 10,000°K.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21849,
title ="Perturbation analysis of one-dimensional heterogeneous flow in rocket nozzles",
author = "Rannie, W. D.",
pages = "117-144",
month = "January",
year = "1962",
isbn = "978-1-60086-261-8",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110121-101804833",
note = "© 1962, Submitted for publication to the American Rocket Society, Jan. 3, 1962. w. D. RANNIE is Robert H. Goddard Professor of Jet Propulsion,\nDaniel and Florence Guggenheim Jet Propulsion\nCenter, Kármán Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics and Jet Propulsion. ",
revision_no = "14",
abstract = "A perturbation analysis of the velocity and temperature\nlags in two-phase flow in rocket nozzles is developed and applied to the calculation of specific impulse and other performance characteristics of nozzles of arbitrary shape. Within the limitations of the one-dimensional flow approximation, the analysis is valid for distributions of particle diameters that are in a practical range.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21878,
title ="Spectroscopy methods of temperature measurements",
author = "Penner, S. S.",
volume = "3:1",
pages = "561-574",
month = "January",
year = "1962",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110125-105124057",
note = "© 1962, Supported the Office of Scientific Research,\nU.S. Air Force, under Contract AF 49(638)-984. ",
revision_no = "14",
abstract = "N/A",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21697,
title ="An experimental investigation of unstable combustion in solid propellant rocket motors",
author = "Brownlee, W. Grant and Marble, Frank E.",
number = "1",
pages = "455-494",
month = "January",
year = "1960",
isbn = "9781600862571",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110111-110838368",
note = "© 1960, AIAA. ",
revision_no = "18",
abstract = "Unstable combustion in solid propellant rocket motors is\ncharacterized by high frequency chamber pressure oscillations, often accompanied by changes in the mean burning rate. Experiments with casebonded, cylindrically perforated motors using a polysulfide, ammoniumperchlorate\npropellant were reproducible as a result of careful manufacturing control and extended propellant curing time. In these motors the oscillations were in the fundamental standing tangential mode and were accompanied by increases in the average burning rate. At sufficiently high pressure levels all firings were stable. Reduction of the operating\nlevel led to mild instability. A sufficient further reduction produced a sudden change to maximum instability. Continued reduction in pressure level from this point resulted in a gradual decrease in the degree of\ninstability but it could not be experimentally verified that a low pressure stable region existed. The levels at which these events took place were frequency dependent and generally increased as the tangential frequency was reduced. At a given operating leve1, the instability\nbecame less severe when the grain length was reduced below a critical value. Increasing the length above the critical value did not affect the level at which the motors became stable. The pressure levels for stability and for maximum instability moved to lower values with decreases in the propellant grain temperature in a manner not entirely accounted for by the effect of grain temperature on burning rate. Stable, mildly unstable and severely unstable operation was observed throughout the range -80°F to\n180°F. The maximum instability decreased with grain temperature.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/22012,
title ="Shock-tube measurements of the homogeneous rate of decomposition on NH_3 in NH_3-AR mixtures",
author = "Jacobs, T. A.",
pages = "151-154",
month = "January",
year = "1960",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110204-101842249",
note = "© 1962. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Air Research and Development Command, under Contract AF 18(603)-2. The author wishes to thank Professor S. S. Penner for the suggestion of this measurement and for his stimulating interest during the course of the work. The author is indebted to Dr. Norman Davidson for a discussion of this point.",
revision_no = "10",
abstract = "N/A",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/22014,
title ="Diffusion in neutral and ionized gases with extreme pressure gradients",
author = "Kerrebrock, Jack L.",
pages = "193-206",
month = "January",
year = "1959",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110204-103536323",
note = "© 1959.",
revision_no = "13",
abstract = "Diffusion in vortex flows is considered as a simple case of the more general problem of diffusion in flows with large pressure gradients normal to the principal flow direction. Two examples are considered. In the first the two gases are assumed electrically neutral, and pressure and concentration\ndiffusion are equally important. In the second, diffusion of the electrons of an ionized gas is studied. Diffusion due to electromagnetic body forces is of equal importance with pres sure diffusion in this case, while concentration\ndiffusion is negligible. It is found in the first example that the ratio of the radial mass flow of one species to the total radial mass flow is a characteristic value of the\ndiffusion equation. The rates of diffusion are such that significant separation of the isotopes of uranium should be possible in vortices with supersonic tangential velocities.\nThe radial pressure gradient leads to a radial electric field in the second example. A solution is obtained for the case of zero currents. By means of a perturbation technique, the solution is then extended to the case\nof small currents and induced fields.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21857,
title ="Relations between molecular gas absoptivities and emissivities",
author = "Penner, S. S. and Olfe, D.",
month = "January",
year = "1959",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110124-084010424",
note = "This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research, U. S. Navy, under Contract Nonr-220(03),NR 015 401.",
revision_no = "14",
abstract = "Theoretical expressions have been derived for the relations\nbetween gas absorptivities and emissivities for\nthe limit of zero optical depth and for the following\nmodels of vibration-rotation bands: bands with constant\naverage absorption coefficients and well-defined widths;\njust-overlapping spectral lines; non-overlapping dispersion\nlines with constant collision half-width and either\nregular line spacing or with lines of equal intensity;\nrandomly distributed spectral lines with dispersion contom;\nnon-overlapping Doppler lines with either regular\nline spacing or with lines of equal intensity; randomly\ndistributed Doppler lines for a special {unrealistic} assumption\nrelating to the temperature dependence of the\neffective mean line spacing; non-overlapping spectral\nlines with combined Doppler and collision broadening,\nconstant collision half-width and either regular line\nspacing or with lines of equal intensity. The theoretical\nformulae have been shown to provide a good correlation\nfor the available experimental data on CO_2, H_2O and CO.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21760,
title ="Ignition in the laminar boundary layer of a heated plate",
author = "Dooley, Donald A.",
volume = "10",
pages = "321-342",
month = "January",
year = "1957",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110113-152309073",
note = "© 1957 Stanford University Press.\n\nThe author wishes to express his deep gratitude to Professor Frank E. Marble for his guidance and encouragement throughout the course of this work. Enlightening discussions with Dr. T. C. Adamson, Jr., during the early phases of this work and with Dr. Edward E. Zukoski during the later phases of the work are also greatly appreciated. \n\nA more detailed version of this analysis as well as additional applications of boundary layer assumptions to aerothermochemical problems is presented in the author's PhD thesis: Combustion in Laminar Mixing Regions and Boundary Layers, Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California (1956).",
revision_no = "22",
abstract = "The present analysis considers ignition and combustion in the laminar boundary layer of a constant temperature, semi-infinite flat plate. A one step unopposed \"global\" reaction following any order reaction kinetics with temperature dependence according to the Arrhenius rate law is assumed. For the case where the Prandtl and Schmidt numbers are equal, the determination of a similarity function relating the species concentrations to the local temperature greatly simplifies the analysis. The similarity function is shown to be equal to the dimensionless streamwise velocity when the Prandtl and Schmidt numbers are both equal to unity. A general analytic solution for the N'th approximation to the temperature and concentration profiles in the reacting laminar boundary layer is obtained. For all values of plate temperature and free stream velocity, it is\nfound that for some finite distance downstream of the leading edge the plate\nacts as a heat source; at all points downstream of this characteristic length,\nhowever, the plate acts as a heat sink. This characteristic length is closely\nrelated to the \"flame attachment distance\" and is indicative of the minimum\nplate length required to stabilize a laminar deflagration flame. Although the\ncharacteristic length is always finite, it is found that for plate temperatures\nbelow a critical threshold band, this length increases so enormously that\nname attachment cannot occur on physical apparatus of reasonable finite\ndimension.\nInasmuch as the classical boundary layer assumptions are invalidated\nin the immediate region of flame attachment, the complete development of\nthe laminar flame front cannot be obtained within the framework of the present\nboundary layer type analysis.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/21780,
title ="Models in aerochemistry",
author = "Penner, Stanford S.",
volume = "1",
month = "January",
year = "1956",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20110118-102541769",
note = "© Roma, 1956. Work supported by the Office of Ordnance Research, US Army, under Contract DA 04-495-0rd-446. The present survey was prepared at the suggestion of Professor L. Crocco of Princeton University.",
revision_no = "12",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/17014,
title ="Fundamental approach to laminar flame propagation",
author = "von Kármán, Theodore and Penner, S. S.",
pages = "5-41",
month = "January",
year = "1954",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20091221-144345839",
note = "Copyright 1954 Butterworths Scientific.",
revision_no = "11",
abstract = "The complete system of equations for a theory of laminar flame equations is presented, taking into account both heat conduction and diffusion, for the case of an arbitrary number of simultaneous reactions. The eigenvalue problem determining the flame velocity is formulated. Two examples are given in order to show that explicit analytical expressions for the flame velocity can be obtained, which are in good agreement with the results obtained by numerical integration of the equations. In the first example (hydrazine decomposition) one reaction is considered as global, i.e., rate-controlling, reaction. In the second example (ozone decomposition) a hypothesis is introduced for the concentration of the free radical O, which corresponds to the steady-state approximation generally used in classical chemical kinetics. In both cases approximate explicit formulae are obtained for the flame velocity using legitimate approximation methods, without making drastic assumptions. The steady-state assumption used for the ozone flame has a bearing on a better understanding of the mechanism of chain reactions in general. The method indicated in the paper gives hope that the more complicated chain reactions, such as the combustion of hydrocarbons, will also be made accessible to theoretical computation.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/17015,
title ="Spectroscopic studies of premixed laminar flames",
author = "Penner, S. S.",
pages = "144-166",
month = "January",
year = "1954",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20091221-152152667",
note = "Copyright 1954 Butterworths Scientific.",
revision_no = "10",
abstract = "A critical review is presented of the results obtained by spectroscopic observations on flames. The objective of the survey is to examine the status, promise, and deficiencies of combustion spectroscopy in its relation to (a) elucidation of the mechanism of combustion and (b) the solution of technical combustion problems. Since important spectroscopic studies have been carried out on low-pressure flames, a discussion of the probable effects of pressure on laminar flame propagation is also included.",
}
@book_section {CaltechAUTHORS_https://authors.library.caltech.edu/id/eprint/17013,
title ="The thermal theory of constant-pressure deflagration for first-order global reactions",
author = "von Kármán, Th. and Penner, S. S.",
pages = "49-58",
month = "January",
year = "1954",
url = "https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20091221-143436496",
note = "Copyright 1954 University of Edinburgh.",
revision_no = "12",
abstract = "The one-dimensional thermal theory of constant-pressure deflagration has been discussed in a recent publication by the senior author and G. Millán. In this paper an explicit relation was given for the linear burning velocity in flames supported by first-order global reactions. It is the purpose of the present analysis to extend this work by dropping the assumptions (a) that the average molecular weight of the gas mixture remains constant, and (b) that the thermal conductivity is constant. As the result, the one-dimensional theory of constant-pressure deflagration described in this paper is complete except in so far as the following reasonable approximations are concerned: (a) a constant average specific heat equal to the ratio of heat release per gram of reactant to total temperature rise may be used; (b) the ideal gas law constitutes a satisfactory equation of state for reacting gas mixtures.",
}